165+ web files, a regularly updated Gazetteer, overall an in-depth description of our island's internally self-governing British Overseas Territory 900 miles north of the Caribbean, 600 miles east of North Carolina, USA. With accommodation options, airlines, airport, actors, actresses, aviation, banks, beaches, Bermuda Dollar, Bermuda Government, Bermuda-incorporated businesses and companies including insurers and reinsurers, Bermudians, books and publications, bridges and causeway, charities, churches, citizenship by Status, City of Hamilton, commerce, communities, credit cards, cruise ships, cuisine, currency, disability accessibility, Devonshire Parish, districts, Dockyard, economy, education, employers, employment, environment, executorships, fauna, ferries, flora, former military bases, forts, gardens, geography, getting around, golf, guest houses, highways, history, historic properties, Hamilton, House of Assembly, housing, hotels, immigration, import duties, internet access, islands, laws, legal system and legislators, main roads, marriages, media, members of parliament, money, motor vehicles, municipalities, music and musicians, newcomers, newspaper, media, organizations, parks, parishes, Paget, Pembroke, performing artists, residents, pensions, political parties, postage stamps, public holidays, public transportation, railway trail, real estate, registries of aircraft and ships, religions, Royal Naval Dockyard, Sandys, senior citizens, Smith's, Somerset Village, Southampton, St. David's Island, St George's, Spanish Point, Spittal Pond, sports, taxes, telecommunications, time zone, traditions, tourism, Town of St. George, Tucker's Town, utilities, water sports, Warwick, weather, wildlife, work permits.
By Keith Archibald Forbes (see About Us) exclusively for Bermuda Online
See end of this file for all of our many History files
2019. February 1. Isabelle
Ramsay-Brackstone, owner of an island perfumery is the new Honorary Consul of
Canada. c/o Stewart Hall, 5 Queen Street, St. George, GE 05. Phone
1 844 880 6519. Fax 212 596-1666 or 212-596-1790. Email
All other inquiries to The Canadian Consulate General, 1251 Avenue of the
The Canadian-born operator of Lili Bermuda, Ms Ramsay-Brackstone, originally from Montreal, Quebec, came to Bermuda 15 years ago with her late husband, Bermudian businessman Kirby Brackstone. They raised their family here in Bermuda and during that time they also acquired the Lili Bermuda Perfumery. They are located in St George’s. Ms Ramsay-Brackstone worked in the banking industry before coming to Bermuda and has since held positions with the tourism board and the National Museum of Bermuda board. Her presence day to day will be offering assistance in consular services, such as if Canadians are stranded. Phyllis Yaffe, Consul-General of Canada for New York, which includes Bermuda in its remit, was delighted to make the appointment. She said: “There are about 3,000 Canadians living on the island and, of course, they need access to consular services. It is for things like lost passports or papers, but also about bringing Canadians to Bermuda for business and bringing Bermuda to Canada for business.”
Bermuda and Canada have been partners in history, commerce, culture, education, tourism and trade since Bermuda was settled by accident in 1609 and by design in 1612. See Bermuda History with the Old and New Worlds since 1500. There are more than 3,000 Canadian residents in Bermuda while 800 Bermudians a year are educated in Canada. A former Bermuda Premier (until December 17, 2012) and at that time also Minister of Finance, the Hon. Paula Cox), was born in Canada.
Canada now supplies about 10% of all Bermuda's tourists. Canadian visitors to Bermuda on vacation go from a hundreds or thousands of times bigger province but with a hugely smaller population density per square mile to a tiny (21 square miles) island with hundreds or thousands more people per square mile. Two Canadian airlines go to and from Bermuda. Canada currently supplies less than 20% of all Bermuda's imports. Many Bermudians have benefited from being sent to school, college and university in Canada. Most Canadian visitors to Bermuda do not experience problems. But there have been problems, including on July 3, 1996 a 17 year old Canadian visitor, Rebecca Middleton - see separate heading below - was kidnapped, raped, sodomized, tortured and murdered. A Canadian Senator was robbed and beaten. In 2005, four Canadian women were robbed and beaten. Canadian women visitors are advised not to accept food or drink from strangers or casual acquaintances, as these may be drugged. Once, the Canadian connection once was hugely impactive in Bermuda. Then, Canadian exports to Bermuda once exceeded US exports to Bermuda, largely the result of the Commonwealth Preferential Tariff. This stopped in the early 1970s when the UK joined the European Union. Between them, until then Saguenay Shipping and Air Canada dominated the trade then between Canada and Bermuda.
2019. July 4. People going to live, work or study in Canada will be able to have their biometric information collected in Bermuda for the first time, it was revealed yesterday. The Ministry of National Security has launched a trial programme to allow residents to get their permits finalised in Bermuda rather than having to travel to the US for biometric information to be collected. The Consulate General of Canada will have a team in Bermuda from July 9 to 11 to collected the needed information. Applicants who have completed the online process must bring the biometrics instruction letter from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada with them as well as a valid passport to submit their biometrics. Wayne Caines, the Minister of National Security, explained: “Bermuda residents who have applied online or by mail for a work or students permit of permanent residence can have their biometrics collected in Bermuda and avoid the expense of travelling overseas.” Mr Caines said that those who are still to apply for Canadian visas would be unlikely to be able to complete their applications before the Canadian team arrived. But he added they should complete the process as soon as possible. The Canadian team will operate from the Department of Immigration, Government Administration Building, Parliament Street, Hamilton, from 9am to noon and from 1pm to 5pm.
2019. June 21. Investors and executives attended Bermuda’s first multi-industry forum in Canada, part of a delegation’s visit to Toronto this week that included meetings with corporate and civic leaders highlighting bilateral business opportunities. Among the meetings, finance minister Curtis Dickinson met with his Ontario counterpart, Victor Fedeli, at the provincial politician’s Queen’s Park office. Their hour-long discussion covered mutual economic links and opportunities between Bermuda and the province, from insurance and financial services to the growth and future impact of artificial intelligence and other disruptive technologies, the Bermuda Development Agency reported. Mr Dickinson, who was accompanied by assistant financial secretary Stephen Gift, BDA chief executive officer Andy Burrows, and the honorary consul of Canada in Bermuda, Isabelle Ramsay-Brackstone, said: “The meeting with Minister Fedeli was insightful — it underscored all we have in common and the potential opportunities we have to work together going forward. It also allowed us to re-engage and build on the historic Bermuda-Canada relationship that has extended over centuries.” Mr Fedeli moved to become minister of economic development, job creation and trade and chair of Cabinet in an Ontario Cabinet shuffle announced a day after his meeting with the Bermuda delegation. He said: “We discussed areas of common interest like insurance, and ways we can work more closely together for the benefit of both Bermuda and Ontario. Ontario has taken an ‘open for business, open for jobs’ approach, and building stronger relationships with important partners like Bermuda will allow our province to expand the economy and grow our exports.” The meeting was arranged by the BDA around its executive forum in Toronto, where more than 120 delegates attended a day of panel discussions and networking opportunities on Wednesday aimed at showcasing Bermuda’s breadth of industries and world-class expertise. The forum was the agency’s sixth in a series, following events in London, New York and Miami over the past two years. Jessel Mendes, BDA director and EY Bermuda partner, said: “Insurance, fintech, tourism — people we’ve met here all have a vested interest in the jurisdiction and are genuinely interested in working with us. “Everyone’s keenly focused on looking for opportunities and leveraging advantages and relationships Bermuda already has, including our beneficial tax information exchange agreement. There’s a lot of common ground linking Canada and Bermuda, and many ingredients for our joint success.” The forum featured a fireside chat-style conversation between Mr Dickinson and Phyllis Yaffe, the consul general of Canada in New York, who discussed geopolitical uncertainty, innovation diversity, and the historic and continuing bonds between Canada and Bermuda, including financial services. Canada is one of Bermuda’s most significant economic partners, with two-way trade between the two nations amounting to $2.6 billion in 2017. “When Canadians and Bermudians get together, there are going to be great business opportunities,” Ms Yaffe said. “I think we bring the same kind of innovative spirit to a conversation. This is a great initiative and I welcome people coming to Canada from Bermuda, and vice versa.” Don Forgeron, president and chief executive officer of the Insurance Bureau of Canada, participated in a follow-up session focusing on Bermuda’s global value. He said: “The Fort McMurray wildfires, the largest ever insured loss in Canadian history, cost $3.8 billion; 80 per cent was paid by reinsurers, and of those, 25 per cent was paid by reinsurers from Bermuda. “This fact underscores the important relationship between the Canadian and Bermudian insurance industries. We look forward to building on this relationship and to leveraging synergies in the Canada-Bermuda marketplace.” Shanna Lespere, chief operating officer of the Bermuda Monetary Authority, joined Mr Forgeron at the session. She said: “Relationships are always key, whether it’s with industry or other regulatory bodies. It’s important to the BMA to ensure our jurisdiction’s reputation is sound, that we’re well respected from an international community perspective, that everyone has a solid understanding of our regulatory brand and that we maintain open dialogue across all parties.” Fintech entrepreneur Lucia Gallardo, who has partnered with the United Nations to leverage blockchain systems to help resettlement of refugees, among other projects, gave a keynote presentation on ways new-economy businesses are fulfilling shareholder expectations while solving global challenges. Other thought-leadership sessions delved into emerging risks that can be covered by insurance captives, ways Canadians can leverage Bermuda investment vehicles, and the rapid evolution of fintech. “Today reinforces our decision to invest in Bermuda,” said David Pasieka, chief transformation officer for Algonquin Power & Utilities, the Canadian corporation that recently announced its $365 million agreement to purchase Bermudian-based Ascendant Group. “With so many good things going for the island, we are excited to bring additional investment, renewable energy expertise and a growth mindset to help support this flourishing economy.” The three-day Toronto visit included business development meetings, visits to industry groups and stakeholder companies, such as the Canadian Venture Capital Association, Sun Life Financial and Portland Private Equity, and an interview with Financial Post. “Clearly, the Bermuda-Canada relationship is broad and deep,” Mr Burrows said. “This visit has allowed us to engage and reconnect with people who can direct new opportunities to our island. Companies are already reaching out to learn more about how to do business from Bermuda, and it’s evident our two markets share many commonalities, which bodes well for both to grow.”
2019. April 4. A team from Canada could assist the Department of Immigration in providing Bermudians who require biometric data to work, visit or study in Canada. The announcement came today from Walton Brown, the Minister for the Cabinet Office. Canada unveiled the new requirements last year, meaning that local residents carrying any type of British passport, including British Dependent Territories Citizens, would be required to submit fingerprints and a photograph with their applications after December 31. The biometric information would have to be renewed once every ten years. The cost to provide the information was CAD$85 for individuals and a maximum of CAD$170 for family applications. However, Bermuda has no facilities to take biometric information, meaning locals would have to travel to the United States to provide the data. Mr Brown said that Bermudians applying for Canadian visas faced “hardship, economic and otherwise” by having to go to the US. He added: “With Bermudian families already sacrificing to meet the high costs of educating their children, an added burden or roadblock is not something that they should have to take on by themselves.” The requirement affects a variety of travelers, but is mandatory for all foreign students in Canada. The minister said: “The Bermuda Government has stepped in and is currently in discussions with the Canadian Consulate in Bermuda to address the issue of Bermudians having to travel to the US to collect the biometric data. Ultimately we are advocating for a Canadian team to come to Bermuda to collect the biometric data, or exploring the possibility of the Department of Immigration or another entity becoming an authorized Canadian Visa Application Centre or Application Support Centre. Our Canadian partners have been receptive and we are hopeful that we will find a good balance. I look forward to updating the public on further developments.”
2018. August 14. Bermudians who want to work, study or live in Canada already need to give biometric information, the Canadian Government has said. Bermudians who carry any type of British passport — including British Overseas Territories Citizens passports — are now required to submit fingerprints and a photograph with their application for a study or work permit. A spokesman for the Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada earlier said the information would not be required until the end of the year. But the spokesman explained in an amended statement: “As Bermuda is a dependent territory of the UK, nationals of the country became biometric-required as of July 31, 2018 when they apply for a study or work permit, or for permanent residence. However, Bermudians do not need to give their biometrics when coming to Canada as a tourist, no matter how long they stay in the country. For those coming to study or work temporarily in Canada, they will only need to provide their biometrics once every ten years. Those applying for permanent residence will need to give their biometrics and pay the fee every time they apply.” The cost to process the information is CAD$85 for individuals and a maximum of CAD$170 for family applications. There is nowhere in Bermuda where the biometric information can be provided, but those who want to apply can supply their information at one of 135 locations in the United States. The spokesman added that the Canadian Government was “constantly monitoring” its visa application centre network and “may decide to open a new VAC location at a later date”.
2018. July 30. Bermudians who plan to study or work in Canada will have to supply extra application information from the end of the year. Bermudians who carry any type of British passport — including British Dependent Territories Citizens — will be required to submit fingerprints and a photograph with their application for a study or work permit from December 31. The requirement will also apply to those who apply for permanent residence and refugee or asylum status. Applications received before December 31 will not need the additional documentation. The biometric information will have to be renewed once every ten years. The cost to provide the information is CAD$85 for individuals and a maximum of CAD$170 for family applications. There is nowhere in Bermuda where the biometric information can be provided. A spokesman for Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada said that Bermudians could supply their information at one of 135 locations in the United States. He added that the Canadian Government was “constantly monitoring” its visa application centre network and “may decide to open a new VAC location at a later date”. Bermudians already in Canada as of December 31 who then apply for a visa, study permit or work permit from within Canada will not need to provide the fingerprints or photograph until the in-Canada biometric service has been set up next year.
2018. July 2. Canadians took to the beach in force this weekend to celebrate their nation’s 151st birthday on July 1. The annual Canada Day Beach Party, organised by the Association of Canadians in Bermuda, drew a sizeable crowd to Warwick Long Bay on Saturday. In addition to the dozens of Canadian flags and those dressed in the colours of red and white, partygoers enjoyed a taste of home in the form of Canadian beers and music, all while basking in the warm weather.
2018. January 3. The Bermuda Tourism Authority has teamed up with Connect WorldWide Canada to promote the island. Now CWW Canada will serve as the BTA’s new public relations, marketing and business groups representation agency in Canada. A BTA spokesman said CWW Canada will launch an integrated marketing campaign called #OutHere365 to highlight Bermuda as a year-round destination. Victoria Isley, chief sales and marketing officer for the BTA, said: “We are excited for the opportunity to work with CWW Canada, a well-respected and innovative leader in the industry in Bermuda’s second largest international market. “Following on an increase in Canadian visitation to Bermuda in 2017, we are excited to launch this new partnership and are confident that CWW’s creativity will excite more and more Canadians to visit Bermuda.” Charmaine Singh, CWW Canada president, said the firm was honored to work with the BTA team. She added: “We are thrilled to have the opportunity to tell Bermuda’s story and showcase her unparalleled adventure and island life.”
2017. November. Heather
Conyers retired as Honorary Canadian Consul. The
Consulate Office in Bermuda is closed at that time. It is hoped there will be a
new Honorary Consul in Bermuda soon.
Until then, please direct all inquiries to The
Canadian Consulate General at 1251
Avenue of the
2017. July 3. Canadians took to the beach in force this weekend to celebrate their nation’s 150th birthday on July 1. The annual Canada Day Beach Party, organised by the Association of Canadians in Bermuda, drew a sizeable crowd to Warwick Long Bay on Saturday. In addition to the dozens of Canadian flags and those dressed in the colours of red and white, partygoers enjoyed a taste of home in the form of Canadian beers and music, all while basking in the warm weather. Jennifer Campbell, president of the Association of Canadians in Bermuda, said the board were thrilled by the turnout. “By early afternoon, the beach was a sea of red and white,” she said. “The weather was beautiful, the Canadian content music by DJ D’Nice was perfect and the delicious food supplied by the Island Restaurant Group and the Canadian beer from Miles Market were sell-outs. We are very happy to report that our trash management efforts were wildly successful as a result of not only support from Keep Bermuda Beautiful but also the attendees of the event. Most people were very trash/recycling conscious and we left the beach quite possibly cleaner than how we found it.” The event is the first since the Association of Canadians in Bermuda gave up its charity status. While the move put the future of the event in jeopardy, organisers were given support in the form of sponsorship from a group of local businesses, including the Hamilton Princess, the Freisenbruch-Meyer Group, Surface Trends and Intelligent Automation Solutions.
2016. December 12. Canada’s new Consul General in New York has visited the island for the first time. Phyllis Yaffe spent two days meeting with members of the local business community, as well as the Governor, the Premier and other politicians. “It was really an introductory trip,” Ms Yaffe, who took up the post in September, told The Royal Gazette. “This is three months since I’ve been in the job and it was my first opportunity to come here and meet some people and get a sense of the place and I think we accomplished that. We met with the Governor, we met with the Premier, some politicians and we certainly met with the business community as well.” Ms Yaffe is responsible for New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Bermuda. “It’s unique in that list of places and it has a whole different set of issues because it’s so different than the rest of my area,” she said, adding that she thinks of it as “a jewel in the crown”. Ms Yaffe, who arrived last Tuesday and left on Thursday, noted: “Canada and Bermuda have a long history of a great relationship and we want to continue that.” She said her job was to ensure Canadians on the island understand “we’re here for them”, as well as expanding Canadian businesses in Bermuda and opportunities for Bermudians. “Many Bermudians go to Canada for university or postsecondary education so we want to make sure that they understand that’s still a great opportunity for them. So continuing just to build good relationships between Canada and Bermuda is the job at hand.” Ms Yaffe, who said she thoroughly enjoyed her first visit, plans to return in the New Year. “I intend to come once or twice a year for sure,” she said. “My team is here on a regular basis.” She added that the full services of the Consul General in New York were available to Canadians on the island through the Honorary Consul and directly through the team in New York. “We are on the island if they need us, particularly under the circumstances of emergency services,” she added. Ms Yaffe, who previously served as the chief executive officer of Alliance Atlantis Communications Inc, has had a distinguished career in both the private and public sectors, holding positions including chairwoman of the board of Cineplex Entertainment, lead director of Torstar Corporation and as a member of the boards of Lionsgate Entertainment, Blue Ant Media and Astral Media.
2016. March 15. New travel requirements for Bermudians going to Canada go into effect. The Electronic Travel Authorization, or eTA, which is a mirror of the electronic system for travel authorization for the United States, becomes mandatory. It will be required for almost all visa-exempt travelers coming to or through Canada by air, as well as all British passport holders. There are no group applications for the eTA, which must be used when travelling. An eTA costs C$7 per traveller and lasts five years, or until the expiry of the passport to which it is linked. Canadian and US citizens are exempt and the requirement does not apply to travelers coming by land or sea. Students with a valid study permit issued on or after August 1, 2015 should check their approval letter, as they may already have the eTA. Applications can be made online, with most finished within minutes and the great majority processed within three days. For details on the requirement, check the website www.canada.ca/eta
2009. Bermuda and Canada signed a tax information exchange agreement (TIEA) which affects Canadians living and working in Bermuda. Thus Bermuda-based banks may be asked by the Canadian tax authority to supply certain relevant information on Canadians living and/or working in Bermuda and/or with Bermuda-based or Bermuda-incorporated entities. Bermuda gained recognition as a Designated Stock Exchange under Canada’s Income Tax Act, in late October, 2011. Because Canada does not have a tax on salaries of Canadians domiciled in Bermuda like the USA has a tax on its citizens in Bermuda, or charge a tax on investment income for non-residents like the USA does, good investments of all kinds in Canada are attractive for expatriates and Bermudians. Mutual funds based in Canada are also attractive when compared to Bermuda and elsewhere. Insurance rates of Canadian companies may be attractive to those working in Bermuda.
|Bermuda size & population||20.75 (Twenty point seven five) square miles in total. 63,779 residents|
|Resident population density per square mile||3,141. Third highest in the world|
|Government Code of Conduct for legislators||None. There is a voluntary code, with no legislative teeth. It is ignored by some. No equivalent at all of the UK's Ethical Standards in Public Life Act.|
|Number in Cabinet||13. Same number as USA, equivalent in Bermuda to 0.63 (Point six three) per square mile. They have "The Honorable" before their name.|
|Number of elected legislators in House of Assembly and their salaries||36. Equivalent to 1.93 (One point nine three) per square mile. They have "MP" for Member of Parliament after their name. If they are also Cabinet Ministers, they earn well in excess of $100,000 a year, plus unlimited expenses.|
|Number of registered voters per Member of Parliament||On July 18,2017, date of last General Election - the average was one thousand two hundred and ninety seven). Contrast this with between 72,810 and 80,433 in the UK in 2017 and more in the USA and Canada per elected legislator.|
|Number of appointed politicians in Senate||11. Equivalent to 0.53 (Point five three) per square mile. They have "Senator" before their name. If they are also Cabinet Ministers, they earn this plus what is shown above under "Number of elected legislators."|
|Number of Government Boards||About 108. All require the approval of the Premier who controls all Public Information. See Bermuda Government Boards separate website shown at the end of this file.|
|Number of Police||About 460, over 20 per square mile. Plus, there are Reserve officers.|
|Registered voters who can participate in a General Election||Total number of registered voters, about 60% of the entire resident population, was about 44,500 on July 18. 2017.|
|The Bermuda Society|
Quite a few do so. Canadian men and women in other occupations are more numerous in Bermuda's Civil Service and private sector than any other nationality and have the highest professional profile of any non-Bermudian group. They are very welcome but do not have the same freedoms here in residing and working without restrictions as they have elsewhere. Canadians visiting Bermuda on business or vacation or as professional newcomers cannot get Bermuda citizenship or vote or buy real estate at the same price as Bermudians - unless they marry Bermudians. Any children born here are not legally Bermudian unless one parent is Bermudian.
Average Population Density is 9 per square mile, compared to Bermuda's 3,400 per square mile.
|Province||Population||Total area, square miles|
|British Columbia||3.72 million||365,948|
|Prince Edward Island||134,557||2,185|
Its first meeting was held in Scarborough, Ontario, initially as the Bermuda Social Club, with their first activity a Guy Fawkes party in November 1981. Its success helped them decide to change the name to the Bermudian Canadian Association. Its logo is a Bermuda Moongate encircled by the name of the association set against a background of palm trees with long tails flying over what looks like a lush green and white depiction of Horseshoe Beach. The Bermuda and Canadian flags fly on each side of the Moongate.
|Englishman Henry May was a passenger on a French vessel commanded by a Monsieur de la Barbotiere. It left Laguna, on Spanish held Hispaneola, on November 30, 1593. Seventeen days later, the crew thought they were well beyond the dreaded "Isle of Devils" of Bermuda and got their "wine of height." At midnight on December 16, the ship struck a reef off Bermuda and only twenty six, including May and Barbotiere, reached shore. With carpenters' tools and tackle for cedar trees, they built a seaworthy craft of 18 tons and caulked her seams with lime and turtle oil. They caught birds, turtles and wild hogs as food as castaways.|
On May 11, 1594 they sailed their Bermuda made craft to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, in 9 days. May got to England two months later, to recount his experiences in Bermuda. But Bermuda was left uninhabited while the Marquis de la Roche established a short lived French colony on Sable Island off Nova Scotia in 1598
French explorer le Sieur de Champlain (Samuel Champlain de Brouage) sighted Bermuda in 1600. He coasted near the South Shore and carried away impressions of high land (the hills were then crowned by forests). He wrote of a "mountainous Island difficult to approach from the dangers that surround it. It almost always rains there and thunders so often it seems as if heaven and earth were about to meet. The sea is tempestuous and the waves as high as mountains." In 1603 French explorer Pierre Du Gua de Monts was the first European to establish a municipality in Canada. He obtained a monopoly on Acadian commerce when he established Port Royal, now Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia in 1605.
|In 1608, Champlain founded Quebec, courted Indian traders and imported French missionaries. In 1748, British regular troops, with Canadian and New England militia, seized the French fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia.|
Signed June 2010. It is believed this TIEA instrument serves at least two purposes. One is to curtail money laundering. Another is understood to require or authorize Bermuda to routinely feed info to Canadian tax authorities about bank and other accounts held in Bermuda by Canadians. A third may require Bermuda to also release info about Canadians living and/or working in or dealing with Bermuda. Many other countries specifically including the USA and UK, have similar TIEAs with Bermuda and operate under the same basic and/or more complex provisions.
Born and raised near Didsbury, Alberta, a rancher's daughter, she attended the Winnipeg School of Art, then the Ontario College of Art, then further art studies in Berlin and Munich. In Germany she met and married a Spaniard, who was supposed to join her in Canada but disappeared and was assumed to have been killed during the Spanish Civil War. For a while she was employed by the National Film Board in Ottawa. Her work was twice selected for special mention. After her bas-relief Coal Miners, she worked for Canadian National Railways in Montreal. Before arriving in Bermuda from New York she sculptured busts of prominent personalities in Canada and USA. She first came to Bermuda in 1945 as a typical visitor, then in 1946 as a resident artist and sculptor. In 1948, she taught sculpture and clay modeling to youngsters at the Bermuda Art Association’s art school then at the Hamilton Hotel (later demolished by fire). She taught art, created window displays for her employer A.S. Cooper’s, prizewinning flora-based floats for the Bermuda Floral Pageant (Easter Parade) and was a costumes and set designer for local theatrical productions. Then as a non-Bermudian, she got special permission from the Bermuda Government to accept commissions. Her most important Bermuda one were the Anglican Cathedral reredos, altar screen and statues of Christ and 14 saints she created in early 1958. She taught and inspired a generation of Bermuda artists of all complexions, races and backgrounds. She eventually opened her own studio, where she taught adults and children, and was free to work full-time on her sculptures. She was given Bermuda Status (a naturalized Bermudian). She died before she could complete five statues for the Cathedral. In the late Two Canadian sculptors finished off the figures of Christ, His mother and the Saints, for the Cathedral's reredos, left unfinished by artist Byllie Lang.
It is not well-known in Bermuda that during the US Revolutionary War with Britain plans were also put into effect to make Canada the so-called "14th Colony" of the American revolt. The revolutionaries never had any intention of being content with merely their own colonies, but expected from the outset that their new nation would include the 13 colonies, Florida, Bermuda, the islands of the West Indies, all of the western territories up to the Mississippi River and Canada. The invasion of Canada was led by Colonel Benedict Arnold and Brigadier General Richard Montgomery. Opposing them was Lieutenant General Sir Guy Carleton with a small but disciplined and determined army of British troops, some Indians, Canadians and American loyalists. On November 13, Montgomery occupied Montreal, while Arnold advanced on Quebec. The rebels had expected the Canadians to flock to their colors and join their war against the mother country, but due to the pillaging of the Canadian countryside by American troops, Canada remained loyal. Carleton, after escaping Montreal disguised as a fisherman, now faced Arnold at Quebec. However, Arnold's biggest problem was not Carleton, the city walls, or the King's soldiers, but the fierce Canadian winter and a lack of supplies. Montgomery joined Arnold, and the two decided they would have to attack, lest their entire army freeze or starve to death. During a violent snowstorm in the early hours of December 30/31, Arnold and Montgomery tried to storm Quebec. British forces repulsed both attacks, inflicting heavy losses on the rebels. General Montgomery was killed and Arnold was wounded. At a cost of only 18 men, the British had inflicted 500 casualties on the rebels. Arnold, however, stubbornly refused to abandon the siege. It was not until May, 1776 when a 10,000-strong British relief force landed that Arnold took the skeletal remains of his army and retreated south to Ft. Ticonderoga with Carleton close at his heels.
In 1973, it was the model for the birth of the Bermuda Housing Corporation, a Bermuda Government quango, now under the Bermuda Housing Act 1980. In 1973, it was charged with the responsibility of ensuring Bermudians have adequate and affordable places to live.
2017. April. Construction of Bermuda's new LF Wade International Airport began. See in chronological detail the long, controversial, drawn-out saga.
2015. August 24. Bob Richards, the Minister of Finance, yesterday signed interim agreements with the Canadian Commercial Corporation for the redevelopment of LF Wade International Airport. While the minister said the contracts did not guarantee the controversial project will move forward, he described them as another step in the incremental contract development process. “The Letters of Agreement contemplates that a further agreement, called the Airport Development Agreement (ADA), must be entered into in order to set out and describe the ambit, principles and subject matter of the project’s final and definitive agreements,” Mr Richards said at a press conference at the airport. “Phase one of this incremental contract process, which consists of exploration, scoping and data completion, has now been completed. This ADA marks the beginning of phase two, which will complete negotiation of definitive, detailed terms to oversee the project’s implementation and move it to financial close. “This will include the framework definition, design and detail costing, finance and detail finalization of the contracts, commitments and liabilities, the independent fairness assessment, local tendering and the addressing of legal issues. This means moving the project forward with Aecon and CCC to finalise the design and financing of the airport’s redevelopment, including construction, operation and maintenance.” He added that phase two is expected to take about a year, after which there will be a final contract which must be signed before construction can commence. The minister also defended the Bermuda Government’s handling of the project, which has come under fire repeatedly due to a lack of tendering and concerns that the deal would amount to privatization of the facility. “The alternative to what we have done so far is no airport,” he said. “The only alternative is no airport at all. We are committed to developing Bermuda, to providing jobs, to constructing a new strategic asset which is needed, and the only way we could go forward with this is this way. “The traditional tender process which everyone keeps talking about would result in the Government increasing the debt by over a quarter of a billion dollars, which is not something this Government will allow. The alternative being what it is, this is the way to go.” Minister of Tourism Development and Transport Shawn Crockwell, meanwhile, said the existing terminal was not meeting the first-class standard that visitors and residents expect. “This Government, your Government, has put together a plan that provides so many benefits for Bermudians. Importantly, it will take a hodgepodge of buildings which we have been using since the 1940s, together with additions and Band-Aids here and there, and replace it with Bermuda’s first purpose-built terminal for civilian air traffic. We have been fortunate in finding such high-end partners to help us achieve this objective.” Martin Zablocki, president and CEO of CCC, said the corporation was excited to be working with Bermuda on a project which will create jobs for Bermudians, both through subcontractors and add-on business, while Aecon Group executive chairman John Beck said it would take great care to deliver infrastructure which supports Bermuda’s economy and society. “We are confident that we can do this for Bermuda through a collaborative and affordable process using Aecon’s award-winning airport development expertise,” he said. “Using a whole-of-country approach, we will work alongside other companies to maximize employment opportunities for Bermudians and bring best-in-class safety, construction and environmental standards to the project.” The Progressive Labour Party has repeatedly criticised the One Bermuda Alliance’s approach over the airport redevelopment, and last week suggested the creation of an airport authority that would allow Bermudians to take advantage of projected revenues. Mr Richards, however, dismissed the claim that the deal would cost Bermuda $620 million in revenue over the course of the next 30 years, dismissing the figures as speculation. “These are coming from people I like to call number bombers,” he said. “They can speculate, they can pontificate, they can prevaricate. They can do that because they don’t have to deliver anything. As ministers of this government we have to deliver, so we can’t throw numbers around willy-nilly. The people who know these numbers are the people who are in this room. The people have to ask themselves do the people in this room, Aecon, CCC and the Minister of Finance, know more about this than people who have never built anything? Aecon built the CN Tower. And the new terminal at the Toronto Airport. We are dealing with experts here. I really think the number bombers need to let us do the deep dive into the data to prove the economics of this project, and that’s what phase two is. A commitment to do a deep dive into the details of this project, to come up with the economics of this projects. The number bombers are going to continue to speculate, pontificate and prevaricate, but we are getting on with the people’s business here.”
Many Bermudians have graduated from them - see Education in Bermuda. Much of the Department of Education's policy planning owes its origin to Canadian initiatives.
|1914 to 1915||Royal
Canadian Regiment, 38th Ottawa Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary
Force (CEF). They arrived in Bermuda somewhat to their disgust as they
wanted to fight in Europe. They left for the European theater in
1915. A Royal Canadian Regiment solder in Bermuda
|1915 to 1916||Draft (10 officers, 98 OR), 77th Battalion, CEF. An offspring from the English speaking Governor General's Foot Guards of Ottawa, an English-speaking regiment. The officer commanding the combined 38th/77th forces was Lieutenant Colonel Douglas Richmond Street.|
|1916||163rd Battalion, CEF. A French speaking unit, originally Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke, Montreal.. A French speaking unit, originally Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke, Montreal.|
|1940||Winnipeg Grenadiers. Arrived to garrison Bermuda.|
|1942||Pictou Highlanders of Canada. Arrived to garrison Bermuda.|
Many Bermudians served in the Canadian Army (or were attached to Canadian Army units), Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force during the war.
From the very beginning of World War II in 1939 for Britain and Canada, the Royal Canadian Navy established an Anti-Submarine warfare training base in Bermuda, under Royal Navy auspices. (At that time, part of it was at Casemates Barracks, the building which later served as Bermuda's main prison in the Bermuda Royal Navy Dockyard). It spread eastwards to Convict Bay in St. George's Parish, with the establishment in 1944 for one year of HMCS Somers Isle. Royal Canadian Navy ships played a major role in the War of the Atlantic. And when Britain signed its "50 Destroyers for Bases" deal with the United States, once again HM Dockyard in Bermuda and the equivalent in Halifax were "twinned" historically and strategically, as in the first 50 years of the 19th century. Thousands of Royal Navy officers and men were conveyed from Bermuda to Halifax to take over 50 previously mothballed American naval ships.
Book: The Ladyboats.
Once important to Bermuda's economy in passengers and freight. This book goes into considerable detail.
Canadian National Steamships 'Ladyboat' carried Duke and Duchess of Windsor from Bermuda to Bahamas in 1940. It was on one of the Canadian National Steamships' 'Ladyboats' much loved in Bermuda that the Duke of Windsor and his wife, the former Wallis Warfield Simpson, sailed in 1940 from Bermuda to Nassau, Bahamas, where the Duke became the wartime Governor of the Bahamas. Much has been made of the effective wartime exile of the Duke and Duchess from Britain in television documentaries in recent years, but nothing has been said correctly of how exactly they got to Nassau.
Durham qualified his report with his rationale for choosing Bermuda as the place of exile. His view was that Bermuda, unlike other penal colonies, would not affix a character of moral infamy on them to make them - as they might become in Australia - centers of trouble as political martyrs. Thus they arrived in Bermuda, as the island's first 'political prisoners.' One June 29, 1838, they were herded in chains on board the warship HMS Vestal commanded by Captain Carter, whom Vice Admiral Sir Charles Paget, based in Halifax, Nova Scotia, had appointed to escort the condemned men to Bermuda with a letter to Bermuda's Governor, Sir Stephen Chapman, to explain the circumstances. When they were freed later the same year, several went first to Louisiana, the most French of all American states. The full story of these 'Exiles' may be of considerable interest to French nationals, French speaking Canadians and Americans with French family connections.
Created in 1994, GPC’s mandate is to be the voice of governance professionals in Canada, according to the organisation’s website. Its members deal with all matters affecting corporate governance, from board and committee processes, management and structure, disclosure, stakeholder engagement, legal and corporate compliance, as well as issues crucial to boards, their accountability and oversight.
The famous Canadian dynasty, the Irving family, has a major offshore corporate base here in Bermuda. A $6 billion empire, it controls huge business concerns in New Brunswick. The 125-year-old dynasty has a number of JD Irving Limited Bermuda-registered entities, and the Island became the final home for company patriarch Kenneth Colin Irving before he passed away in 1992. Since then it has been Mr. Irving's three sons JK, Arthur and Jack, all in their 70s, who have overseen the various elements of the business, which includes media, oil and energy, and forestry. The Irving family is the third richest in Canada.
Among the graves of St. John's Church, Pembroke is that of Bishop Edward Feild (1801-1876), second Bishop of Newfoundland and Bermuda, who died in 1878. In fact, Anglican Bishops of both Newfoundland and Bermuda began in 1839 and lasted for 80 years until 1919. Several Newfoundland families with the surname of Gosling, Harvey and Outerbridge once carried on business and had branches of their families in both places. Plus, the story of the Atlantic fishery involved both places. And J. B. Hand and Sir Francis Forbes were both involved in Bermuda and Newfoundland.
In January 1941, Newfoundland on the northern flank, Trinidad on the southern, and Bermuda in the center were the first of the new Atlantic bases to be garrisoned by the US Military. The first contingent arrived in Newfoundland in January 1941, ahead of the construction forces, and in April the first garrison troops arrived in Trinidad and Bermuda, only a few weeks after the advance party of construction people. Both Newfoundland and Bermuda were intimately tied in with the defense of the northeastern seaboard, the responsibility for which rested with the Commanding General, First Army. Both garrisons, except troops engaged in construction work under the immediate supervision of the Chief of Engineers, were therefore attached to the First Army. Each was responsible for its own supply, which was to be provided by the Second Corps area to the same extent as for units of the field forces within the corps area. After some discussion by one of General Marshall's deputies with the heads of the several staff divisions, it had been decided that the only designation that would not be a source of confusion with the Navy was the rather unwieldy one, U.S. Troops in Newfoundland (or Bermuda, as the case might be). But the official orders, a week later, designated the Newfoundland force as the Newfoundland Base Command, U.S. Army, and the same terminology was used later for the Bermuda and Trinidad garrisons.
In the 1950s, many Bermudians who were schooled in the United Kingdom went there via British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC, later British Airways or BA) and a route or overnight stop at Gander Airport, Newfoundland. Some, including this author, developed their interest in aviation through this Gander connection.
2008. September 18. Then-Premier Ewart Brown of Bermuda signed a Letter of Intent with his counterpart in Nova Scotia, Canada, Premier Rodney MacDonald paving the way for more formalized business and cultural ties.The Letter was signed at Province House, in Halifax, where the Nova Scotia House of Assembly meets. Before the signing ceremony, the Premiers met over a working lunch to discuss steps that can be taken as the two jurisdictions strengthen ties. The Letter of Intent will result in an official Memorandum of Understanding. Dr. Brown also met with Nova Scotia Minister of Tourism, Culture and Heritage, Bill Dooks, and his Deputy Minister Kelliann Dean, plus other tourism officials an Bermudian students studying in Halifax. He noted there are almost 2,000 people from Canada working and living in Bermuda and as many as 300 Bermudian university students in Nova Scotia at any given time. He believes there is clearly room to grow the Bermuda-Canada relationship in areas like financial services, entrepreneurship and tourism. A Memorandum of Understanding will help all involved focus their attention on the potential. This was the first step in that process. Mr. MacDonald said: "We will sign a Memorandum of Understanding that will cement the many partnerships that exist between our two communities and pave the way to future opportunities. We are strengthening a partnership and building on an important relationship."
1868. Nova Scotia Command lost Bermuda. Until that year, British Army units stationed in Bermuda were part of the Nova Scotia Command. On March 14 of that year, the 15th Regiment, then at Saint John, New Brunswick - was ordered to Bermuda and arrived on April 25.
1860-65. US Civil War. Much has been written and televised about Bermuda's role during the American Civil War, but not about the Canadian contribution as it affected Bermuda. It depended greatly on Canadian shipping support and supplies, principally from Nova Scotia. Bluenose windjammers sailed from Halifax and were never subjected to blockade by the Union Navy en route to Bermuda or the Bahamas. One reason was that other Nova Scotians were on the Northern side - and very helpful in supplying goods for the Northerners and volunteers for Northern armies, in complete contrast to the strongly pro South attitudes in Bermuda. Most of what Nova Scotia ships brought to Bermuda and the Bahamas was supercargo, trans-shipped in Bermuda by the blockade runners for the run to Southern ports.
In 1998, Bermuda held the first ever exhibition of water colors by Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise Caroline Alberta (1848 to 1939), the fourth daughter and sixth child of the nine born to Queen Victoria (1819 to 1901) and Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Saxony. Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1819 to 1861). She was Bermuda's first official tourist in 1883. The two big local Princess Hotels are named after her. The first was the Hamilton (or Pembroke) Princess built originally in the late 1880's but modernized since and then known as purely The Princess. The real Princess consented to the name. She was present for the grand opening and named the hotel. She put Bermuda on the map of tourism with her fame and stature. Before she became a prolific and talented artist, she was a trained sculptor. Her husband from 1871 was the Marquis of Lorne from Scotland who later became the 9th Duke of Argyle. It was because of his Royal Appointment as Governor General of Canada that she was able to visit Bermuda, not just once in 1883 but several times later. She much preferred the much warmer winter climate of Bermuda to that of Canada. With her appreciation of the military, home she loved in Scotland, the Guard of Honor it provided for her wedding and the artwork she did for it, one of Scotland's most famous British Army units, The Argyllshire Regiment, was renamed to honor her. It carried her insignia for many years in its own - and served in Bermuda for two years under the old name in the late 1920s before it became The Argyllshire Highlanders, later the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. (Sadly, the battalion that went to Bermuda has been credited in the official regimental records in Stirling Castle as having served in Jamaica instead, 1,000 miles further south. The leading Canadian organization which owns a number of the watercolors she painted while she was in Bermuda (and lent them to Bermuda for a 1999 exhibition) is the National Gallery of Canada. With its cooperation, the paintings were shown at the Bermuda National Gallery.
Lieutenant Thomas Hurd RN, A marine surveyor, had charted the waters of Canada's Atlantic and Gulf of St. Lawrence. He was sent to Bermuda, to sound existing channels through the reefs and find new ones prior to the building of a British naval base in Bermuda. He began his surveys in the late 1780s and completed them in 1792.
In early October that year, on his flagship HMS Resolution off the American coast, Murray was told of Lieutenant Hurd's surveys and findings in Bermuda and dispatched the 32 gun frigate Cleopatra, under Captain Penrose, to Bermuda to bring back a report and charts from Hurd. What they revealed impressed Murray so much that he called at Bermuda himself before his return to Halifax in the spring. Murray sent Penrose and the Cleopatra back to Bermuda in February, 1795, to pick up French prize crews, during which time Penrose made his own glowing report of the facilities Bermuda could offer. Murray ordered Penrose to rendezvous with him at Bermuda in May, 1795 and was so further impressed with what he saw personally, as well as in the reports of Captains Penrose and Pender (of HMS Resolution) and Lieutenant Hurd, that he enclosed them with his own report to the Admiralty dated May 27, 1795.
1906. Christmas Eve. Canadian Reginald Fessenden (1866-1932), see below - later to become famous for his Bermuda connections, made the first radio broadcast in history. Radio operators on ships in the Atlantic were shocked to hear a human voice emitting from the equipment they used to receive Morse code. Many operators called their Captains to the radio room, where they heard Fessenden make a short speech, play a record, and give a rendition of "O Holy Night" on his violin.
Fessenden, making his historic 1906 broadcast
Later, he married a Bermudian, Helen Trott, made the island his home and became headmaster of Whitney Institute School. He was the "Father of Radio Broadcasting" from 1900 and was inducted into the USA's National Inventors Hall of Fame in Akron, Ohio, in September, 2000. Bermuda historian William S. Zuill is a nephew of Helen Trott. The link continues today with the award of annual Fessenden-Trott Scholarships.
On July 3, 1996 this 17-year old Canadian visitor from Belleville, Ontario, was abducted, kidnapped, brutally stabbed, cut 35 times, beaten, tortured, gang raped repeatedly and viciously, sodomized, brutalized and murdered in Bermuda by Bermudians. It was the worst, most brutal, most animal sexually-depraved, most violent and inhuman racial murder of any woman anywhere in the world.
Read more about the details of the case and what the Canadian, UK and Bermuda Governments have not done, in Bermuda Laws.
In November 1850, Samuel Cunard of Halifax, Nova Scotia, introduced his steam packet service from New York to St. Thomas, with a call at Bermuda in both directions. It was an extension of his successful 1840-incorporated British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company on the Liverpool, Halifax, Boston route. Annoyed that his passengers had only sparse hotel accommodations in Bermuda, he threatened to withdraw his ships. It was why Bermuda's first luxury hotel, the Hamilton Hotel, was built by the Corporation of Hamilton. But the New York portion of the service was not a commercial success compared to his earlier Halifax Bermuda direct service and was canceled in May of 1854. In May 1854, Cunard extended his direct Halifax Bermuda service. This route remained in place until January, 1880, when a number of West Indian islands replaced St. Thomas as ports of call. In 1865, knighted for his services to British shipping and pioneering the Halifax Bermuda direct route earlier, he died in London. His son assumed the helm of the Cunard shipping empire. In May 1854, Cunard extended his direct Halifax Bermuda service. This route remained in place until January, 1880, when a number of West Indian islands replaced St. Thomas as ports of call.
Bermuda (CA$9.3 billion in 2012) is a main country of choice. Others are Barbados (CA$27.3 billion in 2012) Cayman Islands (CA$7.8 billion in 2012), Panama (CA$431 million in 2012).
It is not well-known throughout Bermuda or Canada that Jarvis was the family name of persons who founded in about 1792 what was originally the little town of York, in Ontario. It was a consolation prize for being Loyalists during the American Revolution when Jarvis family members were Chief Justices of the Commonwealth of Connecticut in USA. Banned from the USA or facing imprisonment and forfeiture of their property as Loyalists, they went initially to the United Kingdom. After the lengthy British process of adjudicating compensation for British subjects who lost property in the USA, the Jarvis family went to then semi-empty Upper Canada, to found and become prominent in York. Britain's plan was to occupy and populate the area to help counter what was seen in Britain as a potential future geopolitical centre of importance. It was a prophecy destined to come true with a vengeance during the second Brutish-American War, the War of 1812-14 when the town of York, later known as Toronto, was invaded and burnt after a daring surprise raid across Lake Erie by American forces.
Fortunately for the United States, Britain, from 1812, was heavily involved in fighting Napoleon. But, on October 19, 1812, Napoleon's armies began its retreat from Moscow and then began to fall apart on the plains of Russia and in the fields of Germany, Spain and Austria. By the beginning of 1813, it became possible for Britain to shift whole brigades of army veterans from the European war-zones to Canada, to join in the fight against the Americans. From that year onwards, the British naval base at Halifax, Nova Scotia was the scene of feverish activity, with men-o'-war, transports and soldiers, American shipping prizes, French prisoners of war and American soldiers in their thousands, captured during British mopping-up operations against those who had failed miserably in their attempt to seize Canada.
The American military action against the town of York and area prompted General Sir George Prevost, Governor of Canada and Commander-in-Chief of British Forces, Canada, to correspond with Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, other Admirals and their Royal Navy ships in the Atlantic, requesting that the latter's ships undertake appropriate retaliatory action to deter the enemy from any repetition of such outrages. The request was taken seriously. In fact, it dovetailed with plans already in effect. In retaliation, in July 1814, a British Royal Navy fleet also packed with Marines and soldiers sailed from England, assembled in and sailed from Bermuda to successfully attack and burn Washington DC. The fleet took many days to make the 700-mile journey, encountered no opposition en route, and slipped into the Chesapeake Bay under cover of darkness. Smaller transports went up the reaches of the tributary Pawtuxent River to land Royal Marines and supporting troops at the river-port village of Benedict, in southern Maryland, a few miles down river from the Prince George's County line and its sleepy little county-seat of Upper Marlboro. In the subsequent overland sortie, the British marched, unopposed, from Benedict to Upper Marlboro, then swung due east for a direct attack on Washington, District of Columbia, only twelve miles away. They routed a hastily convened American army sent to oppose them, stormed into the city on August 25, sent President Madison and his Cabinet fleeing ignominiously for their lives, and burned the White House, the Capitol and other public buildings and stores. Then it attempted the same thing on Fort McHenry in Baltimore. During that engagement, Francis Scott Key wrote the words of what became the Star Spangled Banner, as a temporary detainee on one of the British warships. The melody is from a bawdy British drinking song by a London based composer. The fleet's voyage ended in Halifax, where hundreds of slaves who had lined the shores of the Pawtuxent River in Maryland and elsewhere nearby to implore British troops to help them escape from bondage had been rescued and were also on the British warships cheering on and actively assisting the sailors who had set them free. In Halifax, the slaves were promptly and officially given their freedom by the British.
Began services to Bermuda in May 2010. A Canadian low-cost carrier based in Calgary, Alberta. It flies within Canada, to the USA, Mexico, Bahamas and Caribbean. The second largest Canadian carrier behind Air Canada.
|Admiral Sir George Somers, Bermuda 1609||Historic Houses||History 1500 to 1699|
|History 1700 to 1799||History 1800 to 1899||History 1900 to 1939 pre-war|
|History 1939 to 1951||History 1952 to 1999||History 2000 to 2005|
|History 2006||History 2007 Jan and Feb||History 2007 March|
|History 2007 April||History 2007 May||History 2007 June|
|History 2007 July||History 2007 August||History 2007 September 1 to 10|
|History 2007 September 11 to December 31||History 2008 to 2010||History 2011 through 2012|
|History 2013||History 2014 part 1||History 2014 part 2|
|History 2015 January||History 2015 February||History 2015 March|
|History 2015 April||History 2015 May||History 2015 June|
|History 2015 July||History 2015 August||History 2015 September|
|History 2015 October||History 2015 November||History 2015 December|
|History 2016 January||History 2016 February||History 2016 March|
|History 2016 April||History 2016 May||History 2016 June|
|History 2016 July||History 2016 August||History 2016 September|
|History 2016 October||History 2016 November||History 2016 December|
|History 2017 January||History 2017 February||History 2017 March|
|History 2017 April||History 2017 May||History 2017 June|
|History 2017 July||History 2017 August||History 2017 September|
|History 2017 October||History 2017 November||History 2017 December|
|History 2018 January||History 2018 February||History 2018 March|
|History 2018 April||History 2018 May||History 2018 June|
|History 2018 July||History 2018 August||History 2018 September|
|History 2018 October||History 2018 November||History 2018 December|
|History 2019 January||History 2019 February||History 2019 March|
|History 2019 April||History 2019 May||History 2019 June|
|History 2019 July||History 2019 August||History 2019 September|
|History 2019 October||History 2019 November||History 2019 December|
December 6, 2019
Multi-national © 2019 by Bermuda Online. All Rights Reserved