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Bermuda Tourism photo
WAV file of Bermuda Sea Sounds. Also hear Nina and Frederick's lovely Listen to The Ocean, at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXeGhIJWG5I
By Keith Archibald Forbes (see About Us) at e-mail exclusively for Bermuda Online
To refer to this web file, please use "bermuda-online.org/islands.htm" as your Subject.
Bermuda's location, 600 miles due east of North Carolina. Location: W064 44, N3219. Time zone: Atlantic time, one hour ahead of the USA and Canada's EST and four hours behind GMT.
Isles), near the Gulf Stream in the northwest Atlantic, with about 50
inches of rain annually. NOT in the Caribbean but
900 miles north of it.
Bermuda is a nominal
British territory - nominal because despite being British it is
self-governing internally, makes all its own laws and
does not use any from the United Kingdom. It
treats everyone - including the British - not born in Bermuda with a
Bermudian parent, or without Bermudian status obtained prior to 1995 or
by marriage after 10 years of marriage to the same Bermudian (and living
with the spouse), as a foreigner.
Only Bermudians can own any property, vote and own any land. Non-nationals are limited to buying the top 5% of land in market price, subject to certain provisos.
|Bermuda is one of the oldest, smallest but most populated of the British Overseas Territories - and oldest British Commonwealth member (not shown by name but via Great Britain). The whole of Bermuda is tiny - with a land area of only 21 square miles or 56 square kilometers. It includes all the islands mentioned below. Residents and visitors travel from one end to the other in just over an hour and from north to south in 10 to 15 minutes. Bermuda is said to have begun some 100 million year ago as a volcanic mountain, with the volcanoes having disappeared 70 million or so years ago. Oceanographers say the Bermuda Rise either juts up from the deep Atlantic Ocean floor in the form of three steep-sided mountains, the largest of which supports the Bermuda today, on the southern margin of a shallow water platform, with Challenger and Argus (or Plantagenet) Banks to the southwest, or that the Bermuda Rise is five mountains including the more distant Bowditch and Muir Seamounts (the furthest of which is about 150 miles to the northeast).||
Bermuda Mountain is longer - 32 miles - than the land area width and
much wider - 16 miles wide - than the maximum land width of 1.5 miles.
At sea, the Argus and Challenger Banks are round and about 6 miles
across. Below the
level of limestone and 450 feet below sea level is volcanic rock; and
below that, only black lava and other igneous volcanic rock. Only in one
place in Bermuda - 60 feet below sea level at the southern end of
Bermuda International Airport -is volcanic rock found so near to sea
The nominal Head of State is Queen Elizabeth II. See Bermuda's Links with Britain. Most visitors' maps portray Bermuda, wrongly, as only one island. It has 6 principal islands or former islands and 120 others for practical purposes (138 in total, including mere rocks) in its total land area of under 21 square miles (33 square kilometers).
Going from northwest to east, the six principal islands or former islands are Ireland Island (north and south), Boaz Island, Somerset, Main, St. David's and St. George's, about 22 miles by road in total length. They are the contiguous mass of Bermuda. The largest by far is Great Bermuda or Main Island, neither of which phrase is used locally. It is a mile wide on average, 14 miles long, 259 feet above sea level at its highest point, with hills and fertile depressions.
All six principal islands are now joined together and to other accessible islands or former islands such as Coney Island and Cooper's Island - by 12 bridges and a causeway. Most visitors confine themselves to these six principal islands without knowing they are going from one to the other (because there are no island signs) or are discouraged from seeing islands which are not among the principal group because there is no scheduled service to them. But some of the smaller ones are fascinating. The bridges linking the principal islands are less than 100 years old. Before then, ferries were used at most crossings. Some were mere rowboat ferries.
Most islands are in Castle Harbor, Great Sound, Little Sound, Hamilton Harbor and Harrington Sound (an internal lake, accessing the sea via Flatts Inlet). All islands have a limestone rock, with coral formation caps. On the north, west, and south they are surrounded by reefs.
There are nine parishes (counties), each 2.3055 square miles (3.68 square kilometers). The map below, from west to east, shows how they relate to each other geographically. With the exception of Devonshire Parish, no Parish shows boundary signs. (In most other countries, counties have entering and exiting signs).
In alphabetical order now, the Parishes are:
All the Bermuda Parishes above have islands. Within these Parishes are these key areas:
|Bermuda International Airport||City of Hamilton||Town of St. George|
|in St. George's Parish||in Pembroke Parish||in St. George's Parish|
The nearest land - Cape Hatteras, NC, USA, 570 miles (946 km) to the west.
New York, NY - 774 miles (1284 km) to the northwest.
Boston, MA - 776 miles (1288 km) to the northwest.
Washington DC - 822 miles (1365 km) to the northwest.
Halifax, NS - 868 miles (1440 km) to the north.
Nassau, Bahamas - 911 miles (1512 km) to the southwest. (No direct flight).
Montreal, PQ - 1027 miles (1704 km) to the northwest. (No direct flight).
Miami, FL - 1029 miles (1708 km) to the southwest. (No direct flight).
Toronto, ON - 1127 miles (1870 km) to the northwest.
Atlanta, GA - 1146 miles (1910 km) to the northwest.
Detroit, MI - 1276 miles (2118 km) to the northwest. (No direct flight).
Puerto Rico, PR, Caribbean - 1386 miles (2301km). No direct scheduled flight to it or any part of the Caribbean, all must be via the USA..
Chicago, IL - 1415 miles (2349 km) to the northwest. (No direct flight).
San Francisco, CA - 3254 miles (5402 km) northwest. (No direct flight).
Southampton, England - 3381 miles (5612 km) to the northeast. (No direct flight).
London, England - 3497 miles (5805 km) to the northeast
Paris, France -3518 miles (5840 km) to the northeast. (No direct flight).
With information about their respective Parishes. Once, there were 173 islands or islets. Some were absorbed into one of the former military bases or been blasted away or merged with a neighboring island.
For more facts on Bermuda, see Basics of Bermuda.
Each Bermuda island below shows in which Parish it is located.
Our separate files on each Parish describe their islands. Some have interesting histories, or are privately owned or both. Only a few are accessible to the general public. Some are wild life reserves, with signs telling people on foot or in boats that landing is prohibited. The Castle Group of islands, Darrell's Island, Nonsuch Island and Paget Island are typical of those closed to most visitors.
Photograph by Keith A. Forbes
Bow of Norwegian tall ship Christian Radich in Bermuda, Royal Gazette photo
Originally 4 acres, is 200 yards by sea from the exclusive area of Point Shares, in Pembroke Parish. It has no public access. It can be seen from the Fairylands shoreline by cruise ship and ferry boat passengers. Once, it was owned and run by the British military. The British Army built Bermuda's largest gunpowder magazine on it in 1870, entirely underground. Bermuda's first aquarium was here in the 1920's, as the forerunner to the Bermuda Aquarium, Natural History Museum and Zoo in Hamilton Parish. The island has guest houses, two beaches, three docks, a swimming pool, tennis and squash courts, and more, as described below.
2014. April 14. Agar’s Island, which was the home of one of the world’s leaders in computer science the late Dr James Martin, went on the market, according to Private Islands Online. It is called Gunpowder Island in the publication, and in a related article in the online The Daily Telegraph, it is described as a “lovely Caribbean island.” The British newspaper article states, under the headline “10 unusual islands for sale” - “This lovely Caribbean island owes its slightly alarming name to the fact it was used as a secret storehouse for military explosives in the 19th century. Today, it’s a rather more tranquil place offering a vast array of accommodation (including a former military barracks).” British-born Dr Martin, who died while in Bermuda last June, established several IT consultancy firms and co-founded Database Design Inc. (DDI), which developed the information engineering software that became the market leader in the sector. Computerworld’s 25th anniversary issue ranked him fourth among the 25 individuals who have most influenced the world of computer science. Dr Martin lived on Gunpowder Island, also known as Agar’s Island from the 1990s. Private Island Online, a Canadian website, described the island, in “the azure waters of Great Sound, Bermuda ... (as a) 7.5-acre property that once served as secret chambers for military explosives in the late 19th century. “Rich with history, the Bermudan (sic) island now features an 8427-sq. ft. main residence, a 3-bedroom deckhouse, a 2060-sq. ft. cottage, a boathouse, and a former military barracks that can double as a conference centre. There is also a three-bedroom dock house, a 2,060-square-foot one-bedroom cottage, a boathouse, and a former military barracks that can double as a conference centre. The historic semi-underground vaults are fitted with a kitchenette, bathroom, billiards/ table-tennis room, gym, cinema, and dining for up to 40 people. “A Japanese garden, Chinese garden, Italian garden, rose garden, an orchard, a cliff walk, a quarry, a waterfall, seven ponds (some fresh water), and a pool dot the island. There are two beaches and three docks, and the island has full electricity, water supply, and services. It is easy to reach from the mainland.” It states that price is available on request. The publication also lists Perot’s Island in Riddell’s Bay for sale at $15 million.
Became privately owned by British author and multi-millionaire the late (died June 24, 2013) Dr James Martin, PhD - see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Martin_(author) - who wrote The Wired Society. From 1965 to 2006 Martin wrote over a hundred other books - many of which became best sellers in the information technology industry. He built a multi-million dollar development here, including an eye-catching atrium.
It became a dramatic new home amid the ruins of the 19th century fort, shown in part above. The island's stone quarries became ponds. A 19th century latrine, once part of the fort became an orchard house. A formal garden was installed on the roof of the old gunpowder magazine. The pumping engines of an aquarium, destroyed in a hurricane in 1922, were recovered and turned into ornamental features.
James Martin MA (Oxon), D.Litt (Oxon), D.Sc (Hon), D.Eng (Hon), Ph.D (Hon), LLD (Hon), D.HL (Hon), FWAAS.
|Alpha||100 yards southwest of Hawkins Island, Hamilton Harbor, Warwick Parish.|
|Argus||39 miles southwest of Bermuda. Man made by the USA in 1962 to spy on Soviet submarines in the Atlantic and once laced with devices to track their every movement. Since abandoned.|
|Banjo||Also known as Bartram's or Mullet. 1.25 acres, Mullet Bay, off St. George's Island. Bartrum's was for John Tavernier Bartrum, a grandson of English naturalist John Tavernier. Born in Lincolnshire in 1811, Bartrum came here as a member of the British Army (37th Regiment of Foot) in 1832, purchased his discharge in 1837 and resided at Ferry Reach until his death in 1889. He became famous for his book in 1879 called The Cage Birds of Bermuda.|
|Bartlett's||Two, both just north of Middle Road, Great Sound, Southampton Parish.|
|Bay||1 acre, 500 yards off Bailey's Bay, picturesque, accessible.|
|Beta||Great Sound, Warwick Parish.|
|Bethell's||Ely's Harbor, Sandys Parish.|
|Bird||1.062 acre, Fairylands, Pembroke
Parish. Recently for sale at US$550,000
Goose and neighboring bigger Bird Islands
Also Denslow's or Dyer's. Great Sound, Warwick Parish. It was referred to as Denslow's as Philadelphia-born American cartoonist and illustrator William Wallace Denslow (1856-1915) - see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wallace_Denslow - who illustrated The Wonderful Wizard of Oz written by L. Frank Baum - once built a turreted castle-like house there in 1903, renamed the island after himself and announced himself thereafter as King Denslow I. He also bought himself a Bermuda sailboat which he named "Wizard" and created a dock for it from the house. From 1903 he did much of his work from his studio at this house. He bought the island from the profits he made from illustrating L. Frank Baum’s classic “The Wonderful Wizard Of Oz” (later shorted to "The Wizard of Oz" book, published in 1900, which became an instant cultural world-wide hit and created first the play and then the movie. The children’s book sold tens of thousands of copies and quickly spawned sequels, a theatrical adaptation and cartoon strips. Later, he quarreled bitterly with his former collaborator Baum. Denslow and Baum. Both claimed “The Wonderful Wizard of Oz” as their own. They almost simultaneously launched competing syndicated newspaper stories that ran in the Sunday comic sections around America and Canada. Denslow designed from his studio in the turret of his Bermuda house his own illustrated cartoons, Denslow’s "Scarecrow and Tinman" which began in December 1904, one of which was known as "Denslow's Scarecrow and Tinman in Bermuda. " The series was short-lived, ended in March 2005. Denslow's sojourn in Bermuda also inspired the setting of a book and play. He worked on them from here. Set in both Bermuda and Vermont and an enchanted underwater fairyland was his “The Pearl and the Pumpkin” - a 1904 Halloween-themed children’s book co-written by Paul Clarendon West and illustrated by the artist. Denslow hoped to replicate the popular success of “Wonderful Wizard Of Oz” with a 1905 stage adaptation of the well-received book. One scene had a Bermuda lily field with chorus members dressed as lilies and a scene off North Rock. It received lavish praise from the New York Times. But the play did not find a receptive audience and closed shortly after its Broadway premiere. After the failure of his considerable investment in the musical version of “The Pearl and the Pumpkin”, by 1908 the self-crowned King Denslow I decided to abdicate and abandon his mid-Atlantic realm. On June 8, 1908, in New York, realtor Carl E. Randrup negotiated a sale of Denslow’s Island, with its large stone residence, cottage and other outbuildings. The buyer was a New Yorker, who wanted to make the place his Winter residence. The price was $30,000. Denslow — married and divorced three times — began drinking heavily and had difficulty landing secure employment after leaving Bermuda. He moved to Buffalo, New York and found work with the Niagara Lithograph Company designing promotional pamphlets. He eventually drifted to New York City around 1913, finding work at another advertising agency where the one-time lord and monarch of his private island earned just a fraction of his former income.
|Boat Rock||See Halfway Rock.|
|Boaz||Also Gate's and Yates. 30 acres. One of the six principal islands. Now connected to mainland via Little Watford Bridge and Grey's Bridge. In 1939, a brand-new Royal Naval Air Station was constructed here as part of British military preparations for World War 2. The increased workload at HMS Malabar caused problems due to the limited space available. With so many of the locally-based or in-transit Royal Navy warships carrying catapult-launched seaplanes such as the Hawker Osprey, Fairey Seafox and Supermarine Walrus seaplanes, the need for prompt, efficient and spacious aircraft maintenance was a high priority. Thus, the new station was built. It had two good-size hangers and launching ramps on either side of the island and they allowed continuous operation in any wind direction. With the Battle of the Atlantic over, the station was reduced to care and maintenance status in 1944. Some remnants still survive. The ferry service to and from here finally ceased in May 2005. The nearest surviving one is Watford Bridge.|
|Brangman's||Also Moore's, or
Southampton. 2 acres, between Castle and Nonsuch Islands, Castle Harbor. Part of the
Castle Group. Historically important. Site of historic Southampton fort shown
Southampton Fort, approved in 1620, completed in 1621
|Bremen||0.25 acre, east of Smith's Island, St. George's Parish.|
|Brook's||0.85 acre, north of but close to St. David's Island, St. George's Parish. Privately owned by Mona Walsh, grand-daughter of the late Howard E. D. Smith who previously owned it.|
|Buck||South of Little Sound, Southampton Parish.|
|Burnt||Very small, west of Salt Kettle, Paget Parish. It is named from when settlers set fire to vegetation to get rid of rats going from island to island.|
|Burt||Warwick Parish. (Warwick North Central constituency). Also Moses, Murderer's, Skeeter's. 7.75 acres, Granaway Deep, Great Sound. Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat. Number 14 on Government listing of Bermuda National Parks and Reserves.|
|Burt's||North of St. David's Island, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photograph by Keith A. Forbes
Castle. Originally King's Island, 3.5 acres, Castle Harbor. St. George's Parish. One of the "Castle Group." It has the King's Castle stone fortification of 1612, built by Governor Richard Moore, the oldest standing English fortification in the New World and oldest stone building in Bermuda. Also with Captain's House, built in 1621, the oldest standing home of Bermuda stone and oldest standing English house in North America. A King George III half penny was found there, dated 1775, legal tender in Bermuda during the American Revolutionary War, and 15 pieces of rare Bermuda Hogge Money from 1615.
The buildings are overlooked on the summit by Devonshire Redoubt, built in stone in 1621 to replace one destroyed by fire in 1619. It was from King's Castle fort that the only attack ever recorded by the Spanish against Bermuda was repulsed in 1614. Two shots were fired from the fort at two Spanish ships sighted just outside the channel into Castle Harbor. The planned invaders headed out to sea without knowing the fort had only one more cannonball left. The fort was improved over the centuries and saw active duty in World War II. Opposite Castle Island is Brangman's Island, originally Moore's Island and Southampton Island, where Southampton fort is located, built in 1612.
Photo by Keith A. Forbes
|Cat||Off Mill Shares, Pembroke Parish.|
|Cathedral||Abutting Whale Island, Ely's Harbor, Sandys Parish. Its name stems from Ely Cathedral in Cambridgeshire, England (still standing since 1200+ AD). There was once a local family called Ely, derived from the UK cathedral. It became quite a common surname for people once from that region, including colonists to North America and beyond.|
|Cave||North of Spanish Point, Pembroke Parish.|
|Charles' (Old Castle)||3.5 acres, is another in the "Castle Islands" group of historical importance for its original fortification. The ancient English forts on these Castle Islands are without parallel in North America, evidence of the beginning of the coastal defense system of the overseas British Empire.|
|Cobbler's||Or Cobler's. West of Spanish Point, Pembroke Parish.|
|Collins||Southwest of Major's Bay, Harrington Sound, Hamilton Parish.|
|Coney||A Bermuda National Park. Named after the coney fish (Cephalopholis fulva) once prominent around here. 14.5 acres in size and open to the public from daylight to sunset, free of charge. It is located off the southwest tip of St. George's Island, joined to Main Island, but accessible by road only via the North Shore Road in Hamilton Parish. It has an interesting, undeveloped park and beaches, also a noisy motor cycle track. Its northernmost tip is called North Point and was the western terminus of a railway bridge that once ran to Ferry Reach. The public beaches are in the Department of Environmental Protection but are frequently littered with bottles, plastics, wood and more. Camping was once a popular seasonal event but is no longer allowed, for reforestation.|
|Cooper's||77.5 acres, south east of St. David's. Historically significant. Now joined (since 1941) to and part of St. David's Island in St. George's Parish. So-called after a William Cooper from London, one of the original colonists in 1609. In 1612 it was claimed by Christopher Carter in payment for his share of ambergris forfeited to the Bermuda Company. He spent years there digging in vain for what he thought was buried treasure. In 1614, Governor Moore had built the Pembroke Fort at the south eastern end. It had two cannons mounted on it. The fort was destroyed by US forces building Fort Bell from scratch and in the process destroying many Bermuda islands for the war effort, during World War II. Then, both all of Cooper's Island and much of St. David's Island were taken over by the US Army at Fort Bell which created a road linking this island with St. David's Island. In 1945 Fort Bell was replaced initially by the United States Army Air Force, later the United States Air Force. As Kindley Air Force Base, the lovely Cooper's Island beaches were a hugely popular attraction exclusively for USAF personnel. In 1960 part of Cooper's Island was occupied by a purpose-built NASA space tracking station to gather tracking and scientific data from all its spacecraft, satellites and planetary probes. Personnel from NASA used the beaches. In 1970, the USAF was replaced by a USA Naval Air Station but the NASA tracking station continued. In 1995, the US bases left, NASA also left and the superb once-exclusive to US Forces beaches became public. Afterwards, Bermuda's weather radar system was located on Cooper’s Island.|
|Crawl||Southeast of Hospital, Sandys Parish.|
|Crow||Hungry Bay, Paget Parish.|
|Crow||East of Trunk Island, Harrington Sound, Hamilton Parish.|
|Current||Northwest of Watford Bridge, Sandys Parish.|
Off Daniel's Head, Sandys Parish.
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photograph by Keith A. Forbes
Darrell's Island. Warwick Parish. (Warwick North Central constituency). Not accessible by ferry, owned by the Bermuda Government. See it from western Harbor Road. This 15 acre island in the Great Sound has a unique history. It was once a quarantine station for epidemics in 1699, 1796 and 1799 of small pox, yellow fever and cholera. It was a designated prisoner of war Island Camp during the 1901-1903 Boer War. Its 1,100 involuntary inhabitants shipped to Bermuda from South Africa to isolate them included Generals of the Boer Army. Many of these prisoners of war died in Bermuda. A memorial to them is on Long Island not far away. In 1936, the island was a purpose built maintenance, refueling station and terminal for flying boats of Pan American and Imperial Airways. The airport here was the base for and pioneered scheduled USA to Bermuda flying routes. It was Bermuda's first permanent facility for any kind of aircraft. On May 25, 1937 the Imperial Airways' Short Empire C class flying boat RMA Cavalier took off from the unofficially opened and not quite finished Darrell's Island Marine Air Terminal in the Great Sound, for New York. At the same time, the Pan American Airways' Sikorsky S-42, code of NC 16735, by then renamed by Mrs. Trippe as Bermuda Clipper, also flew from Port Washington, NY to Bermuda.
She did a successful reciprocal survey of the route. On June 12, 1937 the million dollar terminal building at Darrell's Island Airport was formally opened. Bermuda become THE mid Atlantic seaplane and flying boat airport base and resort. It was also the date of the inaugural flights of the Cavalier and Bermuda Clipper. Both landed safely. Both flying boats took off from Port Washington, New York. RMA Cavalier was commanded by Capt. Neville Cumming, with co-pilot First Officer Neil Richardson, radio engineer Patrick Chapman, and steward Robert Spence. Bermuda Clipper was commanded by Capt. R. O. D. Sullivan. Passengers on this particular flight included Mr. John Barritt of John Barritt & Son Mineral Water Company; Major Neville, a staff officer at Admiralty House; Mr. E. P. T. Tucker, General Manager of John S. Darrell & Co.; Mr. E. R. Williams of J. E. Lightbourn & Co. (who later became a Mayor of Hamilton); Mr. H. B. L. Wilkinson, of Bailey's Bay; Miss Minna Smith, a nurse at King Edward VII Memorial Hospital; Mr. Terry Mowbray, Sports Director of the Bermuda Trade Development Board; Mr. & Mrs. Richard Scott of Boston, returning from their honeymoon in Bermuda; and Mr. Eugene Kelly, Mrs. Alice James and Mrs. John Fullarton, all of New York. Later, in support of the two airlines and in anticipation of much more communications traffic, the West India and Panama Telegraph Company Ltd - in conjunction with Britain's Imperial & International Communications - installed an internal teleprinter system between the airlines' offices and the Air to Ground station. Darrell's Island served in a similar capacity for Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Air Force and US Army Air Force flying boats during World War 2. During the war, American use of Bermuda as a military base caused their desertion of this island for the land based airport they built. From June 1954 for several years, the island was used as a film studio location. The old flying boat hanger was demolished in 1974. Then it became a residential island. Most of it later got taken over by the Bermuda Government. Nowadays, part of the island - Darrell's Island West - is the Allen Camp, operated by the African Methodist Episcopal Churches, at telephone 234-0433.
|Delta||Small, in the Great Sound, north of Burt Island and directly south of Nelly Island, between Gamma and Epsilon, in Warwick Parish. Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat.|
|Doctor's||Hamilton Harbor, north of Salt Kettle, Paget Parish.|
|Duck||A mangrove patch in Hamilton Harbor, Foot of The Lane, Paget Parish. Aquatic life takes refuge here and during storms or hurricanes small boats take shelter to leeward.|
|Epsilon||Small, south west of Port's. Warwick Parish.|
|Eta||Not accessible by ferry, only by boat. During the Boer War, prisoners of war on work parties crossed from Port's to Long and the other way around via a wooden footbridge on this island. Privately owned. Warwick Parish.|
|Fern||Warwick Parish. (Warwick North Central constituency). Also known as Sin, Hamilton Harbour.|
|Ferry||1.5 acres, south west of St. George's Island and north of Coney Island, St. George's Parish. It is named after the horse ferry that used to come here until the late 19th century. It was then the only connection between St. George's Island and Main Island. A bridge connects the island with Ferry Point behind it.|
|Fish Hook||South of East Whale Bay, Southampton Parish.|
|Five Star||Also known as Wilson's, 2 acres, one-property residential, Great Sound, Southampton Parish. Owned and lived on by Curt Engelhorn, the German billionaire.|
|Gamma||Warwick Parish. (Warwick North Central constituency). A mere dot, South of Nelly Island.|
|Gibbet||(Sometimes called Gallows). 1 acre and Little Gibbet, closer to shore. They are not accessible to the general public except by water, up to the high tide mark. The # 10 and # 11 buses stop on either side of the North Shore Road nearby. They can be clearly seen from the North Shore Road where it meets Jennings Land Road, and from the Railroad Trail nearby. They guard the entrance to Flatts Inlet. Both were once sites for executions of witches by burning at the stake and felons by hanging, via a gibbet. The bare pole is not an old gallows but an old standard for a navigation light. One hanging was in 1681, a slave from New England, Indian John. He was the property of William Maddigan who then lived at Orange Grove not far away in the same parish. Indian John escaped, tried to set fire to the house, seized a pistol and intended to shoot every member of the family, but was captured. He was sentenced by Governor Florentius Seymour to be executed, have his head cut off and be quartered and the head and quarters put on poles for all to see. Another slave was hung in 1754 after being convicted of murder.|
|Goat (1)||Fairylands Creek, Pembroke Parish. Near Stipple Island and like it a nature reserve.|
|Goat (2)||Off Cooper's Island, near Nonsuch Island, southeast of St. David's Island, St. George's Parish.|
|Goose|| 0.504 acre. Off Fairylands and Mills
Shares, Pembroke Parish. Recently for sale at US$550,000.
Goose and neighboring bigger Bird Islands
|Governor's|| 1-acre island in St. George's Harbor,
near St. David's Island, between Peggy's Island and Paget Island. Its old
ruined fort, Smith's Fort (see below), was once the dominant feature. It was named for
Governor Richard Moore who in 1612-13 began the fort as a way to command the vulnerable
but then strategically important channel nearby. By the time Moore's term ended, 11 guns
were in the fort. One of the less inaccessible forts but historically important.
Smith's Fort, built 1613
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photograph by Keith A. Forbes
|Grace||Also known as Robbins, 5.9 acres, Great Sound, Warwick Parish. Owned by Bermudian millionaire and philanthropist Mr. Fernance Perry, who has the Grace Island Trust. Birds such as the blue heron make it their home. There is a now a Christian camping site in facilities finished in 2000, the Word of Life Summer Teen Camp, in part of every August.|
|Grazbury's||0.75 acre, southeast of Annie's Bay on Cooper's Island, Castle Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
|Green||Continuation of Nonsuch, St. George's Harbour, St. George's Parish.|
|Gunpoint||West of Wreck Bay, Sandys Parish.|
|Halfway Rock||(Also Boat Rock). A limestone stack just in Smith's Parish, slightly west of Hamilton Parish. It is offshore, halfway between The Castle fort on Castle Island and the fort at Devonshire Bay. It was unmanned but important before the Military Road permitted east-west land travel. It was a military bearing mark on the water route between the two important fortifications.|
|Haggis||South of Riddell's, Southampton Parish.|
|Hall's||Off Trunk, in Harrington Sound, Hamilton Parish. Once used for the study of the gibbons species of monkey. A tribe of gibbons was introduced for research.|
|Hawkins||Warwick Parish (Warwick North Central constituency). Originally Elizabeth's or Tatem. 5 acres. Great Sound. It was re-named after the Royal Navy bought it in 1809. It is not a National Park because it is privately owned by a family trust headed by William Cox. It's not easily seen in the Great Sound because it is the most easterly of the large group of islands stretching across the center, well hidden behind Darrell's, Burt's, Delta, Gamma, and Beta Islands. It was a Boer War prisoner of war camp from 1901 to 1902. It housed as many as 1,300 prisoners in bell tents. There is no ferry service nor public access. But there are local cruises there several days a week with an entertainment package. Planning permission has been sought for lodge facilities.|
|Hen||2.75 acres, north-west of Smith's, St. George's Harbour, St. George's Parish. With a campsite operated by and requiring the permission well in advance of the Bermuda Government's Department of the Environment (Parks). Now used by Cub Scouts. In October 2011 a skeleton was found buried there. It may have been that of Gunner Thomas Squires. In 1825, on September 3, then based with a field battery on Hen Island, he was injured during a storm on the island and subsequently died from those injuries. It is believed he was buried on the island.|
|Higg's||5 acres, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish. Reduced to help create the Town Cut.|
|Hinson's||Also known in the past as Brown's or Godet's. One of the largest in the Great Sound, closer to the Warwick shore than the Paget shore so it belongs here technically even if in Paget Parish. It has a convoluted history in various earlier names, then known as Brown's Island and Godet's Island. It was a Boer War prisoner of war camp from 1901 to 1902, mostly for Boer teenagers. Later, it was the base for Bermuda's first seaplane service, the Bermuda and West Atlantic Aviation Company, run by Major Hal Kitchener and Major Hemming, a veteran of World War I. Now it is an exclusive island - and a private club - for the wealthy, with a request ferry stop on the Warwick service for residents to get to the city of Hamilton and back. Most homes have their own water frontage or private docks or moorings. There are no private automobiles on the island. Ashore, see it best from Harbor Road, at the Belmont Wharf or Darrell's Wharf ferry stops.|
|Horseshoe||2.25 acres, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
At the entrance to Crawl Island, Sandy's Parish. 1818. Construction of the RN Hospital near the Dockyard, in the same pre-fabricated manner as the later Commissioner's House, initially as a Quarantine unit. When added to substantially later, in addition to cast iron structural features, such as veranda columns, floor joists, and possibly cast and wrought iron roof trusses, some of the stonework for the building was the hard local limestone. A surgeon, doctors and medical staff were appointed and sent by the Royal Navy. During World War 2, the Royal Naval Hospital, Bermuda, treated and often saved the lives of many brought in from torpedoed ships. The Royal Navy left in 1950s. That hospital building ended its life as an egg farm, then finally was deliberately burnt to the ground by the Fire Department in November 1972. Part of it became the site for Lefroy House, for senior citizens.
|Idot||Near Nonsuch, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
|Inner Dumpling||East of Outer Dumpling, Harrington Sound, Hamilton Parish.|
|Inner King's Point||West of King's Point, Sandys Parish.|
|Iota||Great Sound, with a small landing dock, Southampton Parish.|
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photographs by Keith A. Forbes
|Ireland||The name has
nothing at all to do with the country of Ireland, simply
because there was once a British colonist landowner whose
name was John Ireland. He owned, lived and farmed on that
island in the 1620s. All other Bermuda place names beginning
with Ireland also refer to him. In the Great
Sound, Sandys Parish. One of the six principal Bermuda islands. It is
the narrow serrated island that pushes out into the Atlantic at the
extreme north west of Bermuda. Also has Ireland Point and Ireland
Narrows, both also after the original owner. It has a completely separate
history from the rest of Bermuda. It is historically important. It dates
from when a Flemish or Dutch ship went aground in Wreck Bay on the Main
Island and sank there in 1618. It was why the original name was Flemish
Hill. The captain of the ship had the very English name of Powell and
was a notorious Caribbean pirate. The buccaneer ship then had legal
status as a privateer. It had sailed against the Spanish under a Letter
of Marque by the Dutch prince Maurice of Orange, so was technically not
a Flemish ship but a Dutch one. The British Government did not like the
presence of Powell in Bermuda so Governor Miles Kendall banished him to
the western Bermuda island now called Ireland Island. It was from there
that Powell and his men tried to build a new ship. In 1795, Wreck Hill
was bought by the Royal Navy - see Royal
Naval Dockyard in Bermuda - which considered the Wreck Hill site an
ideal one for a lighthouse. But the one that eventually got built at
Gibb's Hill instead from 1840 caused the plans for this one to be
scrapped. Until it became a major Royal Navy base in the 18th century,
there were no roads and few inhabitants. Because there was a fear of
leprosy, all those leaving there had to leave this jungle island of
cedar and swine and wooden houses thatched with palmetto before the
Royal Navy started moving in properly from 1809, from which point the
island was destined to become joined to the mainland instead of staying
an island. Maria Hill Fort on this island was later the site of the
Royal Navy's Single Mechanics Quarters. The Royal Navy stayed until 1952 when the Royal Navy Dockyard
there ended, but HMS Malabar continued with a token presence until 1995.
|Kappa||Great Sound, Warwick Parish.|
|Lambda||Great Sound, north west of Hawkin's and between it and Omega. Warwick Parish.|
|Lapstone||Off Spanish Point, Pembroke Parish.|
|Little Crumb||Between Spectacle and Perot's, Southampton Parish.|
|Little Gibbet||South of Gibbet, Smith's Parish.|
|Little Oswego||0.73 acre, east of Oswego (Great), off St. David's, St. George's Parish.|
|Little Rogue||Off Ferry Reach, St. George's Parish.|
|Little Scaur||Between Grazbury's and Long Rock, south of Annie's Bay, St. David's, St. George's Parish.|
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photograph by Keith A. Forbes
Parish. (Warwick North Central constituency). Once known as Sheep, in
that part of the Great Sound known as Paradise Lake. Historically
important. Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat. Once a
British Army military burial ground for yellow fever victims it later
became a prisoner of war Island Camp during the Boer War in 1901 to
1902. Its 1,100 involuntary inhabitants shipped to Bermuda from South
Africa to isolate them from their homeland included Generals of the Boer
Army. There's a poignant stone memorial to them this island where 40
died and were buried.
An official from the government of South Africa visited here in 1998. Among the distinguished visitors to the Boer Cemetery were former South African Presidents Thabo Mbeki and F.W de Klerk. Mr. Mbeki was in Bermuda for secret talks with South African political opponents in 1989 and had traveled from his exile base in Tanzania. Mr. de Klerk visited in 1997. On May 1, 2000, Dr. Nina de Klerk, sister in law of former South African President F. W. de Klerk, visited the island. Her family was actively involved in the Boer War. Prominent Bermudian businesspeople have private cottages or land on the island.
|Long Rock||1 acre, northeast of Grazbury's and Little Scaur, Castle Harbour, St. George's Parish.|
|Main||14 x 1.8 miles at its widest point, biggest and easily most populated of Bermuda's six principal islands, with Southampton, Warwick, Paget, Pembroke, Devonshire, Smith's and Hamilton Parishes. Locale of Bermuda's City of Hamilton. Has never been owned by just one person. At one point, Mark Twain during his Bermuda sojourns, rented a home near the city.|
|Malabar||North of Boaz, Sandys Parish. One of the reasons why there was an HMS Malabar on Ireland Island|
|Marshall's||Warwick Parish (Warwick North Central constituency). Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat. Privately owned, residential. A large double island, between Hinson's and Long Islands. Its two parts are linked by a narrow isthmus. It was one of the islands purchased in 1809 by the British Admiralty for the Royal Navy. Now owned by Bermuda-based businessman Peter Green.|
|Middle King's Point||West of Inner King's Point, Sandys Parish.|
|Morgan's||Ely's Harbour, Sandys Parish.|
|Mount||Off Spanish Point, Pembroke Parish.|
|Mouse||Boss's Cove, Spanish Point, Pembroke Parish.|
|Mowbray||Adjacent to Two Rock Passage, Pembroke Parish.|
|Nelly||Great Sound, south of Hawkin's and adjacent to Long. Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat. Privately owned. Warwick Parish.|
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photograph by Keith A. Forbes
|Nonsuch||An old English name, transplanted by first settlers, after a former Royal palace in Surry, England. Castle Harbor, west of Cooper's Island, south of St. David's, 14.5 acres. It has small, pristine, untouched beaches and a fresh-water marsh. Permission is needed to visit. Its trees are mostly Olivewood, Palm, Bermuda Cedar and casuarina. Its main occupants are the cahow bird (but no nests), butterflies, skinks, silk spiders and the longtail bird. Originally Nonesuch Island. It has been variously used as a grazing land for animals, a ships quarantine station, a yellow fever and smallpox hospital, a marine laboratory - it achieved fame when Dr. William Beebe and staff used it for their deep water diving experiments for a major organization in New York in the 1920s/30s - and junior training school for delinquent boys. It was abandoned for 12 years. In 1951, it was the site of the rediscovery of the Bermuda petrel or cahow, endemic (Pterodroma cahow) thought to have been extinct for over 300 years. The Cahow project was begun here by Dr. David Wingate (he retired in 2000 as Government Conservation Officer, a post Jeremy Madeiros now holds). The entire island was acquired by the Bermuda Government in 1964, as part of its nature reserve, bird and wildlife system, through funds donated by the New York Zoological Society. Now the Nonsuch Island Nature Reserve is a living museum, a re-creation of Bermuda's native flora and fauna. Limited escorted field trips, for special-interest groups only, began in 2000, from the Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR) for $75 per person, including a picnic lunch. Telephone 297-1880. Credit card bookings and Thursday morning only, weather permitting, or if not on a Sunday morning. All proceeds support environmental research and education at BBSR. There is also a week-long Nonsuch Island Natural History Camp every year (usually in June) for local high school students, at the nature reserve. Students camp out under the stars, sleep on lilos or camp beds, bathe with solar showers or cold water from a bucket.|
|North Rock||In 1788, Lieutenant Thomas Hurd RN made the earliest detailed record of this the northernmost point of Bermuda, and the chart contained a proposal for the building of a lighthouse and gun battery on the platform of reefs. It also had a vignette of the six main pinnacles, of which only one is now extant. What happened to the others is not readily known, though hearsay suggests they may have been used as targets for modern artillery practice. Lt. Hurd spent almost a decade in Bermuda waters charting the extensive reefs and plotting the channels through them, including the only major one for large ships, off the east end of St. George's Island. His work set new standards for such charts and he was appointed the second Hydrographer to the Royal Navy in 1808. At his death in 1823, Francis Beaufort, who invented the wind force scale for indicating wind velocity for shipping, succeeded him in that office. Just to the east of North Rock, a channel to the open sea is defined to the east by the Great Breaker, which always breaks, and therefore around which the ocean constantly heaves. That channel was used to good effect by the Royal Navy fleet when it departed for America during the War of 1812. In 1875, Governor of Bermuda General Lefroy persuaded photographer James B. Heyl to make an expedition to North Rock to photograph the pinnacles. North Rock was called on early French maps "La Petite Bermude." Lefroy wanted a image to publish in his upcoming book on the early history of Bermuda and he, his Aide-de-Camp, Capt. Trench RA, and a group of friends all went on the adventure. As the "wet-plate process" was then in use, Heyl had to take his chemicals and a tent to develop the photographs immediately, as so required by that process. The tent-darkroom and the camera were set up on the eastern perimeter of the North Rock boiler and the resulting images captured the site on film, possibly for the first time. Off northern shore of Main, it remains one of the few places of "silence and solitude" in Bermuda, free as it is from any taint of traffic (except the occasional motor fishing boat). Visually, its collection of limestone pinnacles - once one of Bermuda's greatest geological monuments-is marred by the concrete tub that is the foundation for the present North Rock Beacon. Only one of the pinnacles still survives to its original pre-settlement of Bermuda height. What has not changed for many millennia is the ocean, which attacks and retreats from this obstruction in its path, some nine miles north of Flatts Village, with majestic surges of green water and surf. In winter, the ocean breaks massively over these coral fortifications.|
|One-Tree||West of Mangrove Bay Wharf, Sandys Parish.|
|Ordnance Island||The only island in the old town, this one is 1.75 acres and man-made. There were once several islands here. The present island incorporates what was Ducking Stool, Frazer's and Gallows. One stored munitions for the British Army and Royal Navy. Another was where people convicted of capital crimes or witchcraft were hanged. It is now permanently connected to St. George's Island by a bridge so cunningly designed that it does not seem to be a bridge at all. It was a US Navy submarine base when the USA entered World War 2 two years after the British. Cruise ships berth here. Several of the most prominent attractions of the town are located here or nearby. Today, the island has a small park for choice views, a statue of Admiral Sir George Somers who founded the town in 1609, and one of the two cruise ship berths.|
|Oswego||Also known as Great, 2.5 acres, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
|Outer Dumpling||South of Hall's, Harrington Sound, Hamilton Parish.|
|Outer King's Point||West of Middle King's Point, Sandys Parish.|
Paget Island location
St. George's Harbor, 36.75 acres. With several lovely, often deserted, beaches. Owned and operated by a division of the Bermuda Government. Named after William, fourth Lord Paget who also gave his name to Paget Parish on Main Island. At various times later, it was also called Peniston's, Pennistones and Pennystones after Anthony of that name who came to Bermuda from Saffron Walden, Essex, England and lived here. It was purchased by the Honorable George Forbes when known as Paget Ford Island. It and nearby Smith's Island were whaling centers. This island's principal feature is massive Fort Cunningham. A much older fort was here in 1612, another battery was constructed in 1619, major work to the fort was done in 1722, more took place in the 1750s. The fort was replaced in the early 1820's. It was altered in the 1870's to contain two iron fronts instead of masonry walls. Known originally as "Gibraltar shields," only in Bermuda were they made into continuous straight walls, one for five guns and one for two. Seven huge guns for the shields were found in 1991, two being of only six known examples to have survived anywhere of the famous British Army 38-ton, 12.5-inch caliber Rifled Muzzle Loader guns of the 1880's. During World War 2, when the island was still owned by the UK's War Department, it was a prisoner of war camp for some Germans or Austrians - only one of whom, Charles Koeppel, 74 years old in the year 2000, has survived. He was born in the USA but his parents were Austrian. His family tried to leave New York for Europe in 1941 but were captured and interned. Guards from the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps (part of the Bermuda Regiment since 1965) then included William Soares, John Mello and Peter Adams. In the 1960s, the island was the base for Bermuda's Junior Training School, for young severe delinquents, based on the concept of a British Borstal, Unfortunately, most tourists cannot visit Paget Island because there is no regular scheduled boat service. The fort, in Bermuda Government hands, has been allowed to deteriorate. With permission in advance directly from the Bermuda Government's Department of Youth, Sport and Recreation, local and overseas groups camp on the 20 acre campground site each year, only one group at a time with a maximum of 70 campers, at a local cost and more than double the cost for non-Bermudian campers. It is also the Bermuda headquarters of the Bermuda Police-led Duke of Edinburgh-inspired Outward Bound programs. To service these two functions, the island has many outbuildings for different purposes. There is also a sports playing field. A Bermuda Government-operated boat visits at fixed times from the Town of St. George to bring supplies to campers and, by appointment and a fee, other visitors.
|Palm||Between Bethell's and Morgan's, Ely's Harbor, Sandys Parish.|
|Partridge||Off Agar's, off Spanish Point south, Pembroke Parish.|
|Pear||Harrington Sound, Hamilton Parish.|
|Pearl||Great Sound, Warwick Parish.|
|Peggy's||Off Smith's, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
Previously known as Crumb, and Brush or Crumb-Brush. So-called for its similarity to a small, curved table brush used to sweep crumbs from a Victorian-era table. 8.17 acres, one-property residential, Riddle's Bay area, Great Sound, Southampton Parish. Historically significant. Previous owners include the one-time Huguenot Perot family who emigrated to Bermuda in the late 18th century shortly after the French Revolution (William Perot later became Bermuda's first Postmaster General and his stamps earned Bermuda a unique place in philatelic history); Miss Claudia Darrell, owner and operator of Bermuda's Waterlot Inn, later bought by Daniel Ludwig and then the Southampton Princess Hotel; Mrs. David Van Buren of New York who occupied the property in the late 1940s; Mr. and Mrs. Wallace Orr. In 1937 Mr. Orr built Perot's Manor House on this island (The house has 27 rooms, seven of which are bedrooms with en-suite bathrooms; outbuildings, huge swimming pool - at one time the largest in Bermuda - tennis court, boat house and small private beach) and from 1949, Stanhope Joell. The island was later owned for 14 years by billionaire Marion Cargill MacMillan. The property is valued at many US$ millions.
|Ports||20 acres. Warwick Parish. South of Long Island, Great Sound. Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat. Privately owned. Historically important. In 1692, after yellow fever first arrived from the Caribbean and killed 800 people - 10 percent of the entire population at that time - this was the first island used to isolate them after their pets were killed. Yellow fever came to the colony many times. A yellow fever cemetery is still here. Prisoners of war were held in isolation here during the War of 1812 to 1814, Boer War of 1901 to 1902 and World War 1. With a campsite, permission in advance directly from the Bermuda Government's Department of Youth, Sport and Recreation. Only one group at a time.|
|Pudding||Small and barren. South of Stocks Harbor and west of St. David's. Its position saved it from destruction when the USA military bases were built from 1941. This was when it once again got the unofficial name of " Grog Island" - from the fact that a lot of drinking went on here, as it used to 300 years earlier.|
|Quintons, The||Four, off King's Point, Sandys Parish.|
|Rabbit||Sometimes called Collins, perhaps after a family who owned land on the mainland. South west of Trunk Island and Major's Bay in Harrington Sound, it is a nature reserve leased to the Bermuda National Trust, therefore not accessible to the general public. Long tail birds and rabbits are common here. Members of the Bermuda Rifles and Bermuda Militia Artillery - and possibly other military units too - used to poach rabbits here during World War 2 to supplement their rations but this never appeared in any of the official records of these or the British Army or Royal Navy or Royal Canadian Navy or USA military records. Hamilton Parish.|
|Redshank||In the extreme south west of Harrington Sound, immediately off Green Bay. It was named after a bird that inhabited shores and nested here, with pale red legs and feet, now the common tern. Hamilton Parish.|
|Regatta||Two, south of The Crawl, Ireland Island, Sandys Parish.|
|Rickets||Between Burt's and Grace Islands, Great Sound, Warwick Parish.|
|Riddells||Riddells Bay, abutting Southampton and Warwick Parishes.|
|Rogue||0.25 acre, off Ferry Reach, St. George's Parish.|
|Rushy||1.5 acres, south of Castle Point, Tucker's Town, St. George's Parish. A nature reserve. No landing without official permission.|
As seen by the Tall Ships which graced our shores in June 2000
Photographs by Keith A. Forbes
|Rushy||Off Spanish Point, Pembroke Parish.|
|St. David's||The tranquility of this formerly largely rural and now suburban area of Bermuda was shaken forever when, during World War Two, more than three quarters were taken over for the construction of one of the two American military bases. The now closed US facility, first a US Army base, then a US Army Air Force, then Kindley AFB, then a US Naval Air Station, was located here for over 50 years. Once St. David's really was an island, 510 acres, originally one of the six principal Bermudas. It was connected in the 1930's to the mainland by the Severn Bridge, since dismantled. Today, it is connected to the mainland by a perimeter road skirting St. George's Harbor. St. David's Islanders have always been different to most other Bermudians. Some still have distinct characteristics of American Red Indian heritage. The St. David's Lighthouse has an interesting historical backdrop. Built in 1879 and periodically refurbished, it still serves as a beacon for mariners. But it was constructed to eliminate male St. David's Islanders luring ships with other kinds of lights to come too close to the reefs and get their bottoms torn out for easy plundering When the lighthouse defeated their illegal activities, they became fishermen and excellent pilots. Also well worth visits are the Great Head Battery and Park and, when open (usually on a Wednesday), Carter House, on the former US Naval Air Station, an excellent example of an historic Bermuda homestead saved from destruction when the US military arrived in 1941. It is a living museum of Bermudian history. Clearwater Beach and Park at Annie's Bay on Cooper's Island off St. David's is a 36 acre site with two public beaches closed to the public from 1941 to 1995 (during the 54 years Cooper's Island was a US Navy reserved area). It has nature trails and fine views of Nonsuch Island and Castle Harbor.|
|St. George's||Also once known as Tortoise, and Tortus. 703 acres, Bermuda's first colonized island, where Admiral Sir George Somers, Governor Sir Thomas Gates and colonists from the Sea Venture were shipwrecked in 1608 when en route to Virginia. Includes World Heritage Town of St. George and St. George's Parish. Now joined to Main by the Swing and Longbird Bridges and the Causeway. Bermuda's only airport is located in the Parish. One of Bermuda's six principle islands, St. George's Parish.|
|Saltus||About 2 acres, Soncy Bay in Hamilton Harbor, Pembroke Parish, only 100 meters from shore. It originally belonged to Richard Norwood, the great surveyor of Bermuda from 1616 and then his family. They lived on the Norwood property on the nearby Main Island. After Norwood's daughter died, it was sold and got its present name from the Bermuda family of Saltus, in particular Samuel Saltus (1800 to 1880) who - with his brother William - was a merchant, ship owner, member of the colonial parliament and founder of the private school that still bears his name, even though the family of that time died out with Samuel. The island has no buildings on it. In 1819, Dr. Theodore Gilbert tried vainly to get local merchants and ship owners to build a small hospital for strangers and seamen on it. He was one of the first to realize that the terrible infections Bermuda used to have in the 19th century of cowpox, smallpox, bubonic plague, dengue fever, typhoid fever, yellow fever, all had different causes, namely fleas or rats or louse or mosquito or soiled clothing - and came from seamen on foreign ships. Privately owned. Saltus Grammar School, with its Saltus Island Project, has been active. In February 2005 the latter project received a grant from the British Overseas Territories Environmental Programme for education and awareness training.|
|Smith's|| 61 acres, in St.
George's Harbor, St. George's Parish, was named for Sir Thomas Smith or Smythe, the first
Governor of what later became the Somers Isles Company, an office he still held at the
time of his death in 1625. He was an empire builder of immense energy and ability. The
island is historically very significant, Bermuda's first settlement. It was here that
Carter, Chard and Waters, who got the reputation of being the three "Kings of
Bermuda" from 1610 to 1612, settled when they were the first accidental permanent
colonists in Bermuda. They built cabins of palmetto, planted beans, watermelons, tobacco,
maize, fished of the coast, hunted wild hogs, salted bacon and fish they caught and even
made a fresh water catch. When the Plough arrived from England on July 11, 1612 with the
first party of planned colonists, it went first to St. David's to discharge them then went
two days later to an anchorage on the south shore of Smith's Island. Carter, Chard and
Waters proudly displayed to Governor Richard Moore the varieties of garden produce they
had grown. Moore was delighted because the Somers Isles Company in London had supplied him
with 81 varieties of seed to try in Bermuda. Many of the first crops Virginia and the
later American colonies had ever seen were planted on Smith's Island. It was the original
home in Bermuda of the first planned settlers and they even made rock ovens for their food
from the local limestone until they moved to St. George's Island and the Town of St.
George in the summer and autumn of 1612. Twenty three acres on the western one
third of the island are now a recreational area for Bermuda youth, owned jointly
by the Bermuda Government and the Bermuda National Trust. It comes under the
National Parks Act 1986. The Bermuda National Trust bought the acreage for
$850,000 and the Bermuda Government paid the Trust $200,000 for a 23.5 percent
share in the acreage. Thanks to local residents Mr. and Mrs. Robert Basist, the
Trust was able to reforest certain areas it owns of the island with cedar trees.
2015. June 26. A raft of new discoveries on Smith’s Island have helped archaeologists paint a clearer picture of what life was like for Bermuda’s earliest settlers. The team led by Michael Jarvis from the University of Rochester have spent the last five weeks excavating tonnes of soil as they explore sites dating back to the early 1600s. Dr Jarvis and his crew of professors, graduates, undergraduates and volunteers have focused their efforts on the Oven Site on the eastern part of the island, which is believed to have been home to some of the Island’s first inhabitants. “We have exposed two parts to this house,” said Dr Jarvis. “The first part dates from around 1615 and we found two gigantic post holes that would have supported the old roof. A lot more English ceramics have been uncovered that backs up our belief of its origins. The people living in this house probably arrived in Bermuda in the first three years after the Sea Venture. We also found a water cistern with a plaster lining that would have been used to capture rain water off the thatched roof. Also what is significant is that we have not found any glass or nails, which further backs up that this humble structure had open windows and doors and was held together with wooden pegs. Even more significantly we have found evidence of what the earliest settlers used as infill in the walls. From our discoveries this year it would seem that they were using liquid mortar right from the earliest periods which provides invaluable information about how the earliest homes were built.” The ongoing project to explore the origins of Smith’s Island has been made possible thanks largely to the Bermuda National Trust. Over the last five weeks Dr Jarvis and his team have also carried out further excavation of two other sites on the island called the Cave Site and Small Pox Bay. “The Cave Site remains a real mystery,” said Dr Jarvis. “We have found considerable evidence to suggest this was a site where everyone gathered on a regular basis. There’s evidence of eating and drinking and socializing here and ceramics that date back to the early 18th century. This year we found a few different colored river pebbles that must have been imported from somewhere else, but it’s intriguing to think why they were there. As for Small Pox Bay it would seem this is not your typical military site just inhabited by soldiers. We discovered children’s toys and needles, buttons and hair brushes that would have belonged to women too so it would seem this area was used by families.” The team of archaeologists will return to Smith’s Island for the last time this year today before heading back to the US and covering over the area they have excavated in the last five weeks. They hope to return to Bermuda again next year to continue their work into one of the most untouched areas of land on the Island. Dr Jarvis added: “The crew has been phenomenal this year, they have worked in temperatures five degrees warmer than last year and shifted tonnes of earth. We have also had 15 Bermudian volunteers involved in the project which has been good to see. We very much appreciate their efforts and the efforts of everyone especially the National Trust who have made this project possible.”
2015. May 22. A team of archaeologists will return to Smith’s Island next week as they continue to explore one of the oldest homes that has been studied in Bermuda. Dr Michael Jarvis, from the University of Rochester, and his crew of professors, graduates, undergraduates and volunteers will initially focus on the “Oven Site” (right) on the eastern part of the island, which is believed to date back to the early 1600s. Last year the team made a series of breakthrough discoveries during the dig that helped them to date the old property, which has an oven cut into the rock. This summer they will be going deeper in the hope of discovering animal bones and other artifacts that will provide clues about who lived there and when. “At the end of last year we determined that the Oven Site evolved in two phases,” Dr Jarvis said. “We think it began as one small room some time between 1613 and 1619, then in around 1640 they extended it and rebuilt the house. There is then evidence of it being occupied by Native Americans between 1640 and 1710 before the site was abandoned. In the 19th century quarrying dumped a tonne of rubble on the site and preserved it. We hope that by further excavating the site we will find out a lot more about who was there and what they were doing there as well as some valuable artifacts. This site is one of the first domestic sites to be found and studied in Bermuda. These were the very early settlers with perhaps a tobacco farm. We hope we can come back with the evidence to help prove that to scholars.” The team will also be returning to several other dig sites that have been explored in the past few years around Smith’s Island, including Cotton Hole Bight, Smallpox Bay and the new Cave Site. They initially believed Cotton Hole Bight might have been where Bermuda’s first three settlers, Christopher Carter, Edward Waters and Edward Chard, set up camp on Smith’s Island in 1610. Although the archaeological evidence did not support the hypothesis, Mr Jarvis said the team had not given up hope of finding the elusive “first home in Bermuda” which was on Smith’s Island. They also plan to return to Smallpox Bay, where old military buttons from the 19th century were found last year, and the new Cave Site. Mr Jarvis said: “There is real mystery around the Cave Site. It does not figure on any of the old maps and was discovered quite by accident. The roof of the cave was very carefully chiseled out — someone took the trouble to do this, so we are looked to find out why and what it was used for.” The team of archaeological enthusiasts will begin work on Smith’s Island next Tuesday and the project is expected to last five weeks. Mr Jarvis is looking for volunteers to help with the work this summer. If you are interested contact him at Michael.email@example.com. To find out more about the work that has taken place on Smith’s Island, go to Mr Jarvis’s blog at www.smithsislandarchaeology.blogspot.com
|Somerset||703 acres, it is one of Bermuda's six principal islands and the most western. It is joined to Main by Somerset Bridge and is connected to Boaz Island, Ireland Island and Watford Island by bridges and serviced by buses and ferries. In Sandys Parish.|
|Spectacle||Also known as Hunt's, north of Hinson's. One of two by this name in Bermuda but the only one in Paget Parish. In Hamilton Harbor.|
|Spectacle||Next to Perot's, Great Sound, Southampton Parish.|
|Stags, The||Off Shelly Bay, Hamilton Parish.|
|Stipple||Near Goat, Mill Shares and Point Shares, Pembroke Parish. A nature reserve.|
|Theta||Not accessible by ferry, only to those with a boat. Privately owned. Between Marshall's and Long Islands in the Great Sound. Warwick Parish.|
|Tilley||North shore, Pembroke Parish.|
|Tobacco Rock||North of Achilles Bay, near St. Catherine's Point off St. George's Island in St. George's Parish. It preserves the memory of Bermuda's earliest crop in which at one time salaries and wages were paid. It was intended that tobacco be Bermuda's staple crop and laws were passed in England to protect it as such. But Bermuda soil and conditions were never suitable.|
|Trunk||7 acres. Largest island in Harrington Sound. Mostly privately owned. It was once a summer camp for Bermudians including Girl Guides. There is an annual swimming race to and from there. It has a large house and cottage, a rugged shoreline with a small beach and sheltered coves for small craft. The Bermuda Zoological Society has a habitat restoration effort to replant native and endemic species, cull invasive species and include excursions to Trunk Island in its education and conservation programs.|
|Turtle||Privately owned, 1.5 acres east of Devil's Hole on south side of Harrington Sound, Smith's Parish. With a cable car system to pull it to nearby mainland. From the air, it has the general shape of a turtle.|
|Watford||4 acres, between Somerset and Ireland, connected to both via Watford Bridge and Little Watford Bridge, Sandy's Parish.|
|Watling||One-property residential, near Hinson's and Bluck's, Great Sound, Warwick Parish.|
|Whale||Ely's Harbor and Pilchard Bay, Sandys Parish.|
|Whalers'||Near Smith's, St. George's Harbor, St. George's Parish.|
Royal Gazette photos, White's Island
Paget Parish. Originally Hunt's from the family that once owned many shares in old Bermuda. In the middle of Hamilton Harbor, now the property of the Corporation of Hamilton, which rents out the home on the island. Few Bermuda islands have had a more varied history. In the closing months of World War 1 it was sub-leased to the United States Navy as an operating base for U boat chasers. An oil painting of the Stars and Stripes on the island's flag pole was painted then by a well known local artist. The lease lapsed at the end of the war. Has long been a campsite, with permission in advance directly from the Bermuda Government's Department of Youth, Sport and Recreation. Has a small beach. Also from where fireworks are let off periodically, after permission from Government.
|Zeta||Warwick Parish. (Warwick North Central constituency). 1.5 acres, south of Port's, Great Sound. It is named for the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet.|
|Because they no
Those in the list below were absorbed from 1812 into the Royal Naval Dockyard in Sandys Parish and from 1941 the US Naval Air Station in St. George's Parish and the US Naval Operating Base Annex in Southampton Parish. Or they were demolished to make way for them. Their military bases have since closed and are being converted to civilian commercial use
|Big White's||Formerly 1 acre, destroyed in 1942 to help build former US States Naval Air Station on St. David's Island, St. George's Harbour, St. George's Parish.|
|Cave||Formerly 1.5 acres, absorbed by former US Naval Air Station, St. David's Island, St. George's Parish.|
|Cobbler's||Also Storehouse, Gallows, Butterfield, and Frasers. Now part of Ordnance Island, Town of St. George, St. George's Parish.|
|Cross||Also Sober or Magazine. Absorbed in the Royal Naval Dockyard's Camber, 1901. Sandys Parish.|
|Ducking Stool||Incorporated into Ordnance Island, Town of St. George, St. George's Parish.|
|Goats||Two, both incorporated into former US Naval Air Station, St. David's, St. George's Parish.|
|Grace||Castle Harbour, St. George's Parish. One of the islands granted to Lt. William Lang (died 1828) for the annual rate of one peppercorn. Incorporated into former US Naval Air Station.|
|Jones||Formerly 2.5 acres, now part of Causeway, St. George's Parish.|
|Little Round||Incorporated into former United States Naval Air Station and Causeway, St. George's Parish.|
|Little White's||Destroyed in 1943 for construction of the former US Naval Air Station, St. George's Parish.|
|Long||Formerly 2.5 acres, once near St. David's. One of the islands granted to Lt. William Lang (died 1828) for the annual rate of one peppercorn. Incorporated into the former US Naval Air Station, St. David's, St. George's Parish.|
|Long Bird||Once 62 acres, now Bermuda International Airport and part of former US Naval Air Station, St. David's, St. George's Parish.|
|Long Cay||Incorporated into the Causeway, St. George's Parish.|
|Morgan's||Once 13 acres, destroyed to create the former US Naval Annex, Southampton Parish.|
|Needles||Buried under (old, severed) Severn Bridge, St. George's Harbour, St. George's Parish.|
|Round||Formerly 0.5 acre. One of the islands granted to Lt. William Lang (died 1828) for the annual rate of one peppercorn. Absorbed into Bermuda International Airport and Causeway, St. George's Parish.|
|Sandy||Once 2 acres, now buried under the Causeway, St. George's Parish.|
|Stocks||Buried during 1934 building of Severn Bridge Road and Severn Bridge, now part of St. George's Island, St. George's Parish.|
|Tucker's||Also Brother's or Rivers. Formerly 20 acres, incorporated into now defunct US Naval Annex, Southampton Parish.|
|Westcott||Once 5 acres, now part of the former US Naval Air Station, St. David's, St. George's Parish.|
|World's End||Once south of Point Shares, removed for the construction of Two Rock Channel to enter Hamilton Harbour and the city of Hamilton, Pembroke Parish.|
Last Updated: July
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