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Bermuda's Foreign Artists of Yesteryear

From North America and Europe, they liked the bright light and pastel colors

line drawing

By Keith Archibald Forbes (see About Us) at e-mail exclusively for Bermuda Online

To refer to this webfile, please use "bermuda-online.org/forart" as your Subject.


Bermuda has a rich art history. A major reason is because when the USA and Great Britain were not the firm allies they are now, Bermuda underwent some profound changes, with many areas denuded of foliage and developed into British military - army and navy - fortifications mostly designed to defend against any attempted invasion from the USA, as was twice attempted by the USA against Canada. Military artists were sent from Britain to militarily sensitive Bermuda during the 1800's, especially in the aftermath of the US War of Independence and particularly War of 1812 to 1814 when Bermuda had been a principal British base for British Army and Royal Navy land and sea forces that attacked Washington DC and burnt the White House. There was also the US Civil War, during which Bermuda, for openly siding with the Southern States, feared post-war retribution or invasion. The British artists were sent to paint and thereby record vivid scenes of Bermuda as it underwent these changes. They included Joseph Blackburn, Thomas Driver, E. G. Hallewell, Flag Captain Sir Michael Seymour and Lieutenant General Gaspard Le Merchant Tupper (one of whose many Bermuda works is "The Admiral Going to Sea"). 

Later, civilian artists, some later very prominent, came to paint in Bermuda's unique light and helped promote Bermuda. It was a special period in Bermuda's tourism from the 1860s, when a number of visitors, being artists, used their time in mostly the winter months in the very pleasant winter months compared to the snow and ice of much of the USA, Canada, the UK and Europe. They came here by sea to paint Bermuda landscapes. A relatively large number of artists from the New York area liked the idea of leaving behind the stress of city life to spend their winters painting in the sub-tropical climate of Bermuda. Most were of the school of American impressionism, especially the Old Lyme School. Old Lyme is a small community in Connecticut, where, during the first quarter of the 20th century, it became one of the most influential art colonies in American art history. 

Many of the artists, who flocked there from around the United States, stayed in the boarding house of Miss Florence Griswold, but during the winter months when painting outdoors was impractical, some travelled on to Bermuda, so as to continue their artworks. They included Frank Allison, Thomas Anschutz, Jennifer Bartlett, Gifford and Reynolds Beal, Louis Bouche, Jack Bush, Noel Bush, William Chadwick, Frank Carson, Charles Demuth, William Howe Foote, Edmund W. Greacen, Albert Gleizes, Marsden Hartley, Charles Hawthorne, Harry Hoffman, Winslow Homer, Edward K. James, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Lyman, Ogden Pleissner, Prosper Senat, Niles Spencer, Ben Shepardorn, Frank Stella, E. Ambrose Webster, M. P. West and Andrew Wyeth.

Thanks primarily to the efforts of former New Yorkers Fay and Geoffrey Elliott who moved to Bermuda in 1989 and have spent lavishly abroad to acquire an extensive collection of their works in particular - and bring them back to Bermuda - we know a lot now of the military artists shown below. Their detailed landscapes and seascapes show how Bermuda developed as a naval base and land fortress bristling with guns that could heave cannonballs or shells miles out to sea to fend off invaders. The process continued through the 19th century, until the huge Royal Naval Dockyard in Bermuda and its protective ring of British Army manned coastal forts, were completed. You'll find some of their works in the Bermuda Archives, Bermuda Historical Society Museum, Bermuda Maritime Museum, Bermuda National Trust properties, St. George's Historical Society Museum and other galleries throughout Bermuda. Their watercolors provide remarkable views of Bermuda, before photographs and other paintings existed. They are included by name in the list shown below, which also has others.

A wife of a former Governor (Lady Laffan) and wife (Lady Lefroy) and daughter of another (Emily Lefroy) contributed their own unique talents in recording scenes of Bermuda in watercolors and oils. These too are on display in various galleries in Bermuda. Britain's famous Princess Louise (see below) also did so.Benefactors have allowed the Bermuda National Gallery, Bermuda National Trust and Masterworks Foundation to get many of their paintings.

Fulltime and part-time artists coming to Bermuda today who are not Bermudian will need a Work Permit if they sell and display their works locally.

Aleen Aked

British-born 1907, later became a Canadian, died 2003. Known to have wintered in Bermuda.

Aleen Aked, Bermuda

US flagJohn Winthrop Andrews

American, born August 31, 1879 in Newtownville, Mass. Died 1964. Lived in Chicopee, Mass. and later in Yonkers, N Y. Impressionist. 

He studied at the Massachusetts School of Art with Frank Vincent DuMond, Edward Hamilton, and Joseph DeCamp. Known to have lived and worked in Bermuda from about 1910 to at least 1915. His known Bermuda paintings include "Oleander on a Sunlit Path" of 1910 shown below and the oil "Cottage Garden with Flowers" circa 1915.

J Winthrop Andrews in Bermuda, 1910

US flagM. Axelrod

American, known to have entered Bermuda in 1944 where he painted in St. George's. He was one of the artists earlier employed during the Great Depression to paint American and American-interest scenes. With the USA's new military bases in Bermuda from 1941 and access denied during WW2 to most civilians, this is presently just speculation but it may have been the main reason the artist was allowed in Bermuda in 1944 as a civilian (if he was that) and painted the watercolor "The Pond" (likely coastal Coot Pond) St. George's scene shown below.

M. Axedlrod, Bermuda

UK flagRoyce Woolloton Baxter

British, became a Bermudian, arrived in the 1950s after having served in the Royal Air Force. Artist, architect (RIBA), film designer, illustrator, interior designer and in later life author of a children's book. At one time his pen and ink sketches of Bermuda forts and other places for Bermuda Tourism were much in use and admired in tourist-oriented publications. When he was not painting, some Bermudians found his British eccentricities and mannerisms a trifle irritating but others knew him as a gentleman and a scholar and American visitors loved those qualities of his. He was always extremely courteous to and thoughtful of them. They always hugely appreciated his confidence in his work, deftness with an artist's brush and unique artistic talent to make their Bermuda visits both especially memorable and constantly visible to them if not always also to their friends on their return home. In his later years he had his studio in Hamilton Parish. He left Bermuda in about 2001 to return to the UK where he had family. He died in October 2007 in Poole, Dorset, England.

US flag Reynolds Beal

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reynolds_Beal. His brother was Gifford Beal, also an artist. Well-known for his impressionist landscapes and seascapes. A frequent 19th and 20th century visitor to Bermuda. 

Paintings include the City of Hamilton in 1917; "The Bar at the 21 Club" of 1940; and  "St. George's, Bermuda" 1940. He studied in New York at the Art Students League with John Twachtman and later at the Shinnecock School with William Merritt Chase. 

US flag John Prentiss Benson

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Prentiss_Benson and http://www.arcadja.com/auctions/en/benson_john_p_/artist/67873/

Visited and painted in Bermuda 1924-25, judging from several paintings.

But this is not shown in the reference above. 

US flagEvelyn Montague Bicknell

American, 1857 - 1931. A prolific watercolorist who worked in Bermuda from about 1900 onward. 

Those shown below are circa 1910. He exhibited his work extensively at the New York Watercolor Club, the Salmagundi Club and the American Watercolor Society. 

Most of his paintings depicted the South Shore of Bermuda.

US flag Frank Bicknell

See http://www.cooleygallery.com/b_inv/bicknell.htm 

One of the Bermuda-visiting members of the American Water Color Society, formed in 1866.

Andre-Charles Bieler

1896-1989. Born in Lausanne (Switzerland). He came to Montreal in 1908, studied in Paris with Maurice Denis and Paul Serusier; in Switzerland with his uncle, Ernest Bieler (fresco painting); and at the Art Students League, New York, with Eugene Speicher and George Bellows. His 1922 painting of ‘Front Street’ in Bermuda when he spent some time there is well-known locally. It shows a tall building in the background, the home to current day Calypso, that was once Miles Market. Also seen in the painting is the oarsman somewhere between what is now number 5 and 6 shed waiting to take a passenger across to the Paget shore. He lived for a time on the lle d'Orleans near Quebec. Also he was resident artist and head of the department of art, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, since 1936. He became an A. R. C. A. in 1942, an R. C. A. in 1955 and carried out a number of mural commissions.

US flagJoseph Pierre Birren

American, born 1865 - died 1933. 

A Chicago artist who worked extensively in Bermuda and lived there for a time. 

His paintings are Impressionist. 

US flagArnold C. Black

American, 20th century. 

His "Lady Cyclist" resting at La Garza, Paget, is a 1946 watercolour.

US flag Norman Irving Black

American, 1883 to 1953, born in Chelsea, MA. His oil painting of chimneys at Taylor House on Pilot Darrell Square in St. George's, c. 1910 is lovely. 

He was a yearly winter visitor to Bermuda,  beginning in  1910. 

He participated in many local art exhibitions, up until the 1940s. 

His paintings reveal a soft Impressionism, depicting Bermuda in a gentle atmospheric light.

UK flag Joseph Blackburn

He was the first portraitist to come to Bermuda.  

From 1752 to 1754, he painted quite a few local politicians and wives.

 Some portraits are on display in the Bermuda Historical Society Museum.

UK flag F. L. Blanchard

English watercolor peaceful landscape listed artist. 

Also a naval painter and illustrator. 

Painted watercolors of ships near Dockyard, circa 1913.

US flagCarle J. Blenner

American. 1862-1952. 

Born in Richmond, VA.  

Was in Bermuda circa 1899 to 1900.

US flag Daniel Putnam Brinley

1879-1963. A painter whose landscape and genre paintings reflected his childhood near Cos Cob, Connecticut, Daniel Brinley remained active in his native state where he was one of the key figures of the Silvermine Guild of Artists. His childhood home was at Riverside, just across the Mianus River from Cos Cob. For much of his life, he was closely associated with modernists, but his style was a combination of Realism and Modernism. He was much influenced by the Armory Show of 1912. His works during his visits to Bermuda included an oil painting "St. George's" painted around 1920. 

US flag Clinton Brown


Visited Bermuda in 1939. 

Known for his landscapes, seascapes and portraits.

Jack Bush

Canada flag1909-1997. In 1934, he and his wife arrived in Bermuda on their honeymoon. He painted as much of Bermuda as he did his bride. During his 40-year career, Jack Bush became celebrated as one of Canada's most original colour-field painters, and the first Canadian to take part in a major world art movement. Less well known and understood is Bush's development to the point of this international success. He started his career painting during nights and weekends. During the day he worked full-time as an advertising illustrator. The demands of work and his struggles with the parochial attitudes of the art establishment led to pressures that affected his life and his art. The inner turmoil he suffered is well documented in the paintings themselves, but the underlying causes of his distress have been less understood. These causes have been revealed for the first time in recently unsealed diaries from the AGO Archival Collection and letters from Bush to the influential New York critic Clement Greenberg, which are held by the Smithsonian Institution.

Jack Bush Bermuda portrait

US flagFrank Carson

1881-1968. American, from Massachusetts, he featured prominently in the Masterworks Bermudiana book (pages 178-181) edited by the late Patricia Calnan. He was most active locally in the 1930s. His small post impressionist paintings "Catching Bait off St. George's" and "Ships Rounding Spanish Point" both of about 1932,  were on the market in Bermuda in 2000 for $4,500 each. 

US flag A. William Chadwick

1879-1962. Born in Dewsbury, England, he emigrated to New York City where friends from the Art Students League encouraged him, age 23, to paint at Old Lyme, Connecticut. This experience redirected him from portrait and figure subjects to landscapes. An Impressionist, he focused on portrait and landscape subjects and spent much time at the artists colony at Old Lyme. He had a strong reputation among his colleagues but was not greatly known beyond his own circle. However, he want to Bermuda where he painted several scenes including the following of Hamilton Harbour:

Hamilton Harbour by William Chadwick

US flag Floyd MacMillan Davis

American painter and illustrator sent to Bermuda in 1942 as a war correspondent for Life Magazine. During that time he painted both US military base construction and, on a lighter social note, civilian-related scenes. He is known to have completed at least nine paintings, one of which, his 1942 painting of Front Street, Hamilton, is shown below. As a war-time painting, it shows how Bermuda was then militarily "occupied" by British,  American and Canadian military personnel.  In 1943, Life Magazine referred to Davis "the best illustrator in America.”

Front Street, Hamilton, by Floyd Davis

US flag Charles Demuth


He first visited Bermuda with Marsden Hartley during the first world war.

UK flag Thomas Driver

Born Thomas O'Brien Mills Driver in 1789 (another source states he was born in 1791 and died in 1852) he first went to Spain, then Bermuda from England on HMS Romulus in June 1814. He never had art training but established a reputation as an artist and at that time claimed to be the only one.  Thus it is possible, although not proven, he may have painted the fine artwork below of HMS Romulus.

HMS Romulus

 His brother Hal was a published poet in London in the early 19th century and the family donated many family letters and art to the Cambridge University Library. Driver's father was a perfumer in Cambridge. He spent nearly 22 years in Bermuda in total, not consecutive. He went from Bermuda to the Caribbean 800+ miles way to the south in 1818, painted a scene of the town of St. George in 1821. His view of St George’s is one of the Island’s earliest known oil paintings and shows life in a very busy St George’s Harbour. In 1822 where he is said to have created paintings of British, French and Dutch colonies. He returned to Bermuda and in 1833 painted a unique rendition of the Town of St. George. He returned to England on May 12, 1836. He left behind a family of fascinating genealogical heritage passed on to the present generation. His paintings have much significance in Bermuda as the Thomas Driver collection of local watercolors. They are  now owned privately by the Fay and Geoffrey Elliott Collection in Bermuda and housed at the Bermuda Government Archives.  

Hamilton, by Thomas Driver

Thomas Driver 1816 watercolor

A Bermuda painting by Thomas Driver


Three of many Bermuda paintings by Thomas Driver

There is no published record of his wife but he had two Bermudian daughters. One of them, Althea Frances Driver, married Horatio Musson of Bermuda in 1841 when she was 21. Their children were Thomas Driver Musson, born in 1842 and Susan Jane Musson, born in 1844. Thomas Driver Musson married 26 year old Eliza Wilson Robinson, the daughter of David Robinson, on October 26, 1871. Eliza Musson died in 1883 when giving birth to their seventh child. Another child died earlier in childbirth. Modern descendants come from the remaining five. They include Grace Musson Butterfield, Joanne Edwards, Dr. Ian Kawaley, Cecile Musson Smith, Elizabeth Musson Kawaley, Marlene Rogers, Joan Rogers and Victoria Pearman. 

Canada flagPaterson Ewen

Born in 1925, a celebrated artist. While on holiday in 1994 and 1995, at the Coral Beach and Tennis Club, he produced a series of Bermuda works. They included Bermuda Moon, Whale Sitting, Coral Beach and Ocean Scene. He has made at least 10 visits.

UK flag John Finch

A retired engineer who lives on the Isle of Wight in the United Kingdom but used to come to Bermuda regularly to see his daughter Carolyn, also an artist, when she lived here. She too now lives on the Isle of Wight.

US flag Janet Fish

American, she grew up in Bermuda, visited for the first time since then in 1993.

US flag William Howe Foot

1874-1965. During his Bermuda visits, he painted "Old Buildings, Bermuda" and "Old Bermuda House" with it's glow of late afternoon sun bathing the upper walls of this white, two-storey dwelling.

UK flag Deryck Foster

Born 1924. Died October 19, 2011. A skilled painter of sea and sail. His exposure to sailing began at seven years of age. From dinghies he progressed to cruising and off-shore racing. This informal experience was supplemented by turns as a watch officer aboard Britain's sail training schooners the “Sir Winston Churchill” and the “Malcolm Miller” and several years as bowman of the Yarmouth lifeboat. Mr. Foster's artistic training began at the Southern School of Art, Bournemouth, England and after war service, continued at the Central School of Art, London. He exhibited at the Royal Society of Marine Artists for over thirty years, was elected a member in 1964. He is in the permanent collection of Russell Coates Art Gallery, Bournemouth and the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, England. His patrons include Prince Philip and England's former Prime Minister Mr. Edward Heath. Mr. Foster had a studio in Yarmouth, Isle of Wight, for many years as well as his adopted second home of Bermuda. His talents were discovered in 1968 by Bermudians Dorothy K. Trimingham and her husband deForest (Shorty) Trimingham when they were participating in yacht races at Cowes, Isle of Wight. They had found a painting of the yacht Mr. Trimingham was sailing. Impressed, they located the artist, nearby. In 1972  Foster put his paintings on exhibit in the Front Street display windows of Trimingham Bros, during the Newport-Bermuda Race that year. The success of that showing led to Deryck and DeniseFoster, married in 1949, going to Bermuda to live for more than eight years.  Later, their daughter Karin married Col Sumner H. Waters, USA, of the Bluck family in Bermuda. John RH (Jack) Lightbourn, then manager of the Bank of Bermuda, commissioned a major collection of paintings of the maritime history of Bermuda of the 1700 and 1800s. Deryck and Denise Foster researched the ships in libraries and archives. Mr. Foster painted them. His paintings of famous Bermuda ships, including those built in Bermuda of cedar for the Royal Navy, include the Elizabeth and Mary;  Hezekiah Frith's privateer vessel, Experiment; Harvest Queen; and Queen of Bermuda.

Deryk Foster Bermuda painting

Dereyk Foster. One of his many unique Bermuda ship paintings

UK flag F. Kenwood Giles

1899 or 1900-1972. Originally from London, he received the Royal Drawing Society’s Gold Star at age 14. Resident in Bermuda from 1950 for a few years, he exhibited with the Bermuda Society of Artists, later, Bermuda Society of Arts 1952-1956; and by 1954 was on their exhibition Selection Committee. A commercial artist and cartoonist he produced Howdy Doody cartoons for Sunday editions of the Royal Gazette newspaper in the early and mid 1950s; also  advertising artworks for the Bank of Bermuda in the late 1950s, maps of Hamilton and St. George’s, brochure and magazine covers, scenes from Bermuda’s history, humorous postcards, etc. 

France Albert Gleizes

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_L%C3%A9on_Gleizes

1881-1953. French cubist painter. Not mentioned in the reference above is his time in Bermuda. He spent the winter of 1917 at the former (later, destroyed by fire) St. George's Hotel in the Town of St. George, Bermuda. There he completed a number of Bermuda paintings including his "Portrait of Juliette" shown here. It is an oil on masonite and has quite a history.  It was painted of Juliette when she and her husband visited Bermuda in 1917.  It was exhibited only once, at the Salle Boissae in France. It had remained in the family collection until sold in November 2000 for US$170,000 at Sotheby's in New York, on behalf of the Masterworks Foundation of Bermuda. The lead donor of the cost was the Humann Foundation and an anonymous donor.  This artist's "Paysage des Bermudes" is also famous in Bermuda.  A friend and colleague of Picasso, he co-authored with Jean Metzinger the first book on the principles of cubism - called "Du Cubisme" - still in print today. Also, his view of Government House in Pembroke Parish and his cubist rendition of "Pitt's Bay" are most interesting.

UK flag A. M. Graves

British, he was in Bermuda in the 1920s. He may have been a Royal Navy officer or rating based at HM Dockyard. One of his works is the painting "The Water Carrier" - the scene of a donkey cart hauling barrels of water from Lagoon Park, Ireland Island.

Abbott Fuller Graves


Not mentioned in the above reference is his time in Bermuda. His Impressionist "Old Slave House, Bermuda" is an oil painting from around 1900. The white bungalow appears to be aglow in full sunlight. The dark background of a cedar grove, helps create a sense of luminescence.

UK flag E. G. Hallewell

Edmund Gilling Hallewell (1820-1869) first appeared in British military records when he was commissioned in 1839 as an ensign with 20th Regiment of Foot and he died at Sandhurst, England. He rose through the ranks retiring on half-pay as a colonel in 1860 when he was appointed the commandant of the Royal Military College at Sandhurst in 1864. His tours of duty took him to Bermuda (1848) as a major, the Canada, England, the Crimea and Malta. During the Crimean War, he served with distinction at Alma, Inkerman and Sebastopol, was created a Knight of the Legion of Honour and rose to the rank of Deputy Quartermaster General. Hallewell's Canadian service began at Halifax then at Quebec in 1847, he was next posted in Kingston, London and Montreal before leaving the Canadas in 1850. His residence in London, Upper Canada was from May to September 1849. As a painter, Hallewell is known for his landscapes and marines in oil and watercolour and it is probable that he trained in landscape topography as part of his early military training.. Little information is available on his early life outside his British army service.

Colonel Edmund Gilling Hallewell's fine set of panoramic lithographs of Bermuda are much admired. A fine photograph of him, taken during the Crimean War by well-known Victorian photographer Roger Fenton, is now in Bermuda.  When Hallewell was in Bermuda, he was a Lieutenant in the British Army, Adjutant of the XXth Regiment of Royal Engineers stationed at Bermuda with the British garrison. Later - in the 1850s -  he was a Colonel in the 20th or East Devons garrisoning Bermuda. Prior to his arrival in Bermuda, he was trained as a topographical artist, which ensured that his views of Bermuda were a very accurate record of the placement of land masses. Yet he also managed to arrange his foreground elements in a manner that was picturesque and much in fashion at the time. He sketched in charcoal the Island's many scenes of extraordinary beauty with an incredibly detailed and disciplined hand, including views of the Great Sound from the Gibbs Hill Lighthouse area, four more views of the Sound from Spanish Point and three of St. George's from St. David's Lighthouse. He called the 13-scene set "Views of the Bermudas." Otherwise known as his "Panoramic Sketches of Bermuda," they were reproduced in a series of lithographs in 1848 that have been treasured in Bermuda ever since. They are notable for their detail which so highlighted how, only a few years later, so many areas of Bermuda were so denuded of trees and foliage.

Gibb's Hill Lighthouse 1848

Gibb's Hill Lighthouse 1848

Eight of Hallewell's sketches are in the possession of the Bermuda Historical Society Museum. They show, respectively, (i) HM Dockyard, With Maria Hill, Spar Yard, Cockburn Cut, Cobbler's Island, Magazine Island, Hogfish Beacon, Cobbler's Cut, Signal Post and Casemated Barracks, Dockyard and Commissioner's House; (ii) Entrance to St. George's Harbour, with the Royal Barracks, Fort Victoria, Fort Albert and Royal Hospital, Fort Cunningham situate on Pagets Island and Fort Catherine; (iii) Road to Hamilton, featuring a Bermuda stone wall and two trees, one without foliage; (iv) Looking North West, of part of St. David's Island, Smith's Sound, Sugar Loaf Hill, St. George's Harbour, Smith's Island, Fort George and Hen Island Magazine and St. George's Town and Harbour; (v) Looking West, Somerset Narrows, Boaz Island, Ireland Island, Maria Hill, HM Dockyard and Pearl Island; (vi) Looking West (again) showing Somerset, the Royal Hospital and Ireland Island; (vii) Looking North East, showing Wreck Hill, Somerset Island, Tucker's Island and the Great Sound; and (viii) Overlooking Hamilton Harbour. This is the only one of the series signed by the artist. It shows Timlin's Narrows, Boss Cove, The Rock Passage, One Rock Passage, Oxford and Ship Passage. Little did Hallewell know at the time that his sketches would end up a century later as prized lithographs (and that 144 years later, a rare set of 13 plates of his lithographs, one of only 50 sets in existence, would be sold at the famous auction house of Sotheby's in London for 30,800 pounds (then over US$60,000). It is estimated that there are eight to ten sets of Hallewell's art in private hands in Bermuda today).

In December 2008 British auction house Holloways of Banbury sold a Hallewell complete set of 13 lithograph plates, circa 1848, entitled Views of the Bermudas or Somers Islands for £10,500 (around $15,000). The lithographs show 13 panoramic views of three different areas of Bermuda, the Spanish Point area, Port Royal area and St. George's. The prints sold in Oxfordshire were in black and white and were "considerably foxed" with spotting covering much of the artwork. Lithography, developed in 1796, is a method for printing using a plate or stone with a completely smooth surface. While the original paintings by Mr. Hallewell have probably been lost to the test of time, the plates can live on providing us a glimpse into the past. Mr. Hallewell is believed to have done all of the original artwork himself as part of his surveying duties for the military and "exercised his surveying skills" to imagine what the land would look like without any buildings or structures on them. The complete 13-piece set includes six views that form a panorama of the islands in the Great Sound seen from a hill west of Gibbs Hill lighthouse. Four views form a panorama from a hill on Spanish Point looking to the Great Sound with the shores of Warwick, Southampton and Sandys parishes beyond; and three views from near St. David's lighthouse form a panorama looking over Smith's Island to the town and parish of St. George's.

UK flag William H. Harrington

British, Bermuda resident, artist, muralist at the Elbow Beach Hotel, designer. He said he was once a court painter to King George VI. He was an interior designer for the City Hall, Hamilton and his work there included a portrait of Queen Elizabeth and in 1959, to coincide with Bermuda's 350th anniversary, he painted the "Sea Venture" that brought the first colonists to Bermuda in 1609 for the Bermuda Maritime Museum. He also painted all the heraldic crests of Bermuda's nine parishes.

W. H. Harrington

A Bermudian cottage -  by Harrington.

US flag Marsden Hartley

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsden_Hartley 

Hartley first visited Bermuda with artist Charles Demuth during World War 1. He stay on the North Shore of Bermuda with fisherman Elmo Petty. He went fishing regularly with Petty. He was fascinated by Bermuda fish and the color of the water. He paid US$ 15 a month for his lodging and was said to have spent as much time writing - he was also a poet - as painting. A rare financial windfall enabled him to make his second visit to Bermuda in 1935 to keep periodic bouts of depression at bay, because of constant poverty. His "Movement, Bermuda" may well be an abstraction of a sailing ship. Among his many works, this famous American expressionist painted "Sunken Treasure" - now in the Bermuda Masterworks Collection thanks to a substantial donation from the Bermuda-based Christian Humann Foundation. It is an excellent example of Hartley's art, especially as his Bermuda-period works are relatively rare. It was when he turned away from cubism toward a rugged expressionism based on forms of nature. His works are now all over the USA. They were first displayed in New York at the famous gallery of Alfred Stieglitz, who was also credited with introducing such modernists as Matisse, Picasso and Cézanne to the American public.

US flag Harold Leslie Hoffman

American, 1871-1964. A man with strong academic art training, Harry Hoffman was judged by his peers to have done best with his landscapes when he painted what he saw and set aside the theories. He studied in Paris, worked at Yale University with John Ferguson Weir, and was a student at the Art Students League with Frank DuMond. But Willard Metcalf had the strongest influence, encouraging Hoffman to paint in the style of impressionism. In 1902, Hoffman went to Old Lyme, Connecticut. He also went to and painted in the Bahamas and Bermuda where he completed the following:

Bermuda artwork by Harold Leslie Hoffman

US flag Winslow Homer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winslow_Homer. Not mentioned in this reference are any of his Bermuda paintings, of which there are some very significant ones. In December 1899, Bermuda welcomed him for the first time from Maine, on the SS Trinidad which he painted, the first ship built specifically to service Bermuda's tourism industry. In 1901, it brought him back for an extensive visit. He captured the ship on canvas as she sailed the North Channel. On March 31, 1901, he wrote to his New York dealers to advise them that he was sending them three Bermuda drawings as at that time they should attract attention due to the close for the season of Bermuda's hotels (at that time, Bermuda's high season for tourists was November to March). 

Winslow Homer in Bermuda 1899

Winslow Homer in Bermuda 1899

Homer's Bermuda 1901Another Homer painting of BermudaHomer again, on Bermuda

"Bermuda (1901)" pictured above is back in Bermuda, thanks to the Christian Humann Foundation. It donated $30,000 to the acquisition by Bermuda's Masterworks Foundation which pioneered the repatriation of Bermuda's artworks by famous artists. Homer painted at least 21 Bermuda watercolors. In 1901, they were  exhibited at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. Homer was awarded a gold medal. Also in 1901, he selected a quiet spot in Southampton near the Great Sound for a splendid scene on  a 21 by 14.5 inches canvas. It was "Inland Waterway" pictured here. It shows Granaway Deep, with Marshall's and Darrell's Islands in the background.  The historic home is Spithead, later the home of American dramatist Eugene O'Neill, Charles Chaplin and British playwright Sir Noel Coward. After many years in the USA, the painting finally returned to Bermuda in 1992, with a price tag of $700,000, paid by Bermuda's Masterworks Foundation, with some help from friends of Bermuda. Homer was hugely intrigued by Bermuda's early history and how the first involuntary settlers off the wrecked Sea Venture in 1609 found wild hogs as food. He painted them in " Bermuda Settlers -1901" pictured here (and on a Bermuda postage stamp years later). The hogs were dropped in the water by 15th century Spanish and Portuguese sailors who used Bermuda as a navigational landmark to Mexico and beyond. They knew the hogs would swim to shore and breed. They were food for shipwrecks on Bermuda's dangerous reefs.

UK flag Edward K. James 

Confederate ship Florida by James

One of his works, the Confederate ship Florida.

Edward K. James - "Paddle Steamer & Blockade Runners"Edward K. James - "Hansa of London" 1865

Edward K. James - Hulk (prison for convicts) on FireEdward K. James - "Opening of the Causeway, 1879"Edward K. James - "St. George's Harbor"

James - not his real name but one he used - was born sometime in 1820. Clearly, he was from England. He arrived in Bermuda by accident on November 22, 1861, when his ship the "Devonshire" limped into Bermuda in some distress when en route from Liverpool to New York. It was claimed he was the brother of Shirley Brooks, editor of the British satirical magazine "Punch" (which finally wound down in April, 1992 after 150 years of publication). He made no known attempt to continue his journey to New York. Instead, he remained in Bermuda and died here of apoplexy in 1877 at the age of 57. His abode was where the St. George's branch of the Bank of Bermuda now stands. He began his life in Bermuda as a part-time artist, almost as soon as he arrived. In December, 1861 he ran an advertisement in the Royal Gazette of Bermuda for paintings and sketches he had completed while aboard the ill-fated "Devonshire." He claimed to be a naval architect by training and on the strength of this he applied for and was granted the commission by the Governor of Bermuda of Surveyor General of Lands in 1862 (a post from which he was fired in 1865). But he received no salary or housing for this position. In 1863, he ran other notices in the same newspaper. The unfortunate American Consul Charles Maxwell Allen, who represented the North during the bitter American Civil War and was much-despised during that time in Bermuda, did have one friend. He was this mysterious British artist, with whom Allen shared an office in the mid 1860s. It was not known at the time but was revealed later that in fact they were not only personal friends and co-tenants of an office but that Allen made a special point of secretly engaging James to paint detailed pictures of the many Confederate vessels that openly then used Bermuda as a base and/or a trans-shipment port and some of them are shown here. For a while in 1965, as well as a free-lance artist and Surveyor General of Lands, he was briefly the editor of the newly-formed "Bermuda Chronicle" after the "Bermuda Advocate" went out of business. But he incurred the displeasure of Lieutenant-Governor W. G. Hamley for allegedly having public and private sector conflicts of interest despite the fact he was not paid or housed by the Bermuda Government. His writings were construed as political statements often attacking the Governor, forbidden by the position held by James. Nor was he given the commission he wanted to survey and plan the Causeway. James was annoyed when the position was instead given to a British Army officer in the Royal Engineers. He retreated into his private world of art on a full-time basis in 1865. It was said publicly that he was an alcoholic. Certainly, he was known to use most of his earnings from the sale of his works to fund his heavy drinking. His American Consul friend and office-sharer commented on this during the American Civil War.  Appearing much older than his actual years, James was often seen sketching with a green veil hanging from the back of his hat. His paintings survived and are now acclaimed in Bermuda. They are now owned mostly by the Bermuda National Trust, Bermuda Historical Society and St. George's Historical Society. Those in their hands have been preserved in environmentally-suitable conditions by and shown by the Bermuda Archives. Some were damaged and had to be restored before showing. His scenes of Southern blockade-runners and other ships are splendid graphics of the late 1800s. He did not focus only on the Town of St. George and its harbor. He also went to and painted near Hamilton Harbor,  Gibb's Hill Lighthouse, Spittal Pond - the Causeway completed in 1879 - and the Royal Naval Dockyard, then at the height of its construction by convicts living in prison hulks.  Altogether, since September 21, 2001 and until January 15, 2002, 32 of his paintings large and small, from the two main owners and others too, have been exhibited at the Bermuda National Gallery at City Hall. They are together for the first time since they were painted.

 Frederic James

American. Known to have visited Bermuda in 1938 and painted Heyl's Corner in Hamilton. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_James

US flagJoe Jones

American. his Bermuda works included an oil painting of Flatts Village. He was from the American West. In World War 2 he was an official war artist. In the 1950s he wintered here and met and mentored Bermudian artist Alfred Birdsey.

US flagDonald Morris Kirkpatrick

1887-1964. American artist, architect, etcher and teacher, another of the mentors of Alfred Birdsey and friend of Joe Jones. Born in Easton, Pennsylvania in 1887, the son of Pennsylvania's Attorney General William S. Kirkpatrick and Elizabeth H. Jones, he earned the degree of Bachelor of Arts form Lafayette College in 1908. He then studied architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, during Paul Philippe Cret's influence there, receiving the Arthur Spayd Brooke Medal and graduating in 1911 with a bachelor of science degree in architecture. Kirkpatrick then served a brief apprenticeship with Thomas, Churchman & Monitor. In 1912, he had just formed a partnership within with Sydney Martin, B.S. in Architecture 1908, when he won the Paris Prize enabling him to travel to France and study architecture for two years. When he returned to Philadelphia in 1914, he and Martin resumed their architectural partnership. Kirkpatrick was awarded a Silver Star for his heroic efforts during World War I. In 1919 Kirkpatrick and Martin joined with older architect and fellow Penn alumnus Walter Thomas to form the firm of Thomas, Martin, and Kirkpatrick. As a member of this firm, Kirkpatrick was involved in the design and construction of the Christian Association (built 1927-1929) on the Penn campus. In 1931 Kirkpatrick left the firm to study etching and watercolors in France. Later that same year, he again returned to Philadelphia where he became an assistant professor of design at Penn. He technically held this position until 1934. In 1932 Kirkpatrick and his wife resided in Bermuda. He was employed by the Bermuda architectural firm of Onions and Bouchard. In 1934 he designed and built bought the house, Landmark, in Bermuda, on the North Shore Road, Crawl, Hamilton Parish, which later became a restaurant. Homes in Bermuda designed by Kirkpatrick included the following: “Troon”, the home of Mrs. M.A. Dunne, in Tucker’s Town; “Commonland Point”, the home of Mrs. G.B. Hollister, in Shelly Bay. He also designed homes for Terry Mowbray, Lady Williams, and Dr. Harry Curtis. Plus, in collaboration with others, he helped design the Pink Beach Cottage Colony and the Bank of Butterfield building. However, Kirkpatrick continued his interests in etching and watercolors. 

Jim Kuhlman

American, came to Bermuda for the first time with his wife, Julie, while she was going through chemotherapy treatments for breast cancer in 1997. In August 2013 his 31 Bermuda paintings were exhibited at Masterworks. They stayed at Cambridge Beaches five of the six times they visited. The Island inspired him to venture into painting with watercolours, to capture the blues hues of the water, and vibrant whites of the roofs, after years of working mainly with pencil. A widower since March 2013, with an art degree from college, he has been an art teacher for the past 40 years.   

Jim Kohlman

UK flag Charlotte Ana Lefroy and her daughter Emily Lefroy

British, wife and daughter respectively of popular and energetic Major General Sir John Henry Lefroy who was Governor of Bermuda from 1871 to 1877. In 1999, there was a lovely Bermuda National Trust (BNT) Christmas card, of two hibiscus flowers as water colors, painted in the 1870s by Charlotte Ana, Lady Lefroy. She painted 84 exquisite Bermuda botanicals. They were presented in 1955 in a bound volume to the Bermuda Historical Monuments which later (1970) became the Bermuda National Trust. But they were not seen by the Bermuda public until a BNT exhibition that began in May 2013. Emily Lefroy also painted.

Norman Lewis

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Lewis_(artist). American, born in Harlem, New York. His parents has emigrated there from Bermuda. Has several Bermuda-inspired paintings. Considered an important African-American abstract expressionist.

Paul Jean Martel 

See http://pauljeanmartel.com/bio1.html. Belgian/American. The former excludes any information about his Bermuda visit but a Bermuda collector is believed to own two small but vibrant oils dated 1938.

Dodge MacKnight

American, 1860 to 1950. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodge_MacKnight. Latter does not mention is Bermuda visit but he was ranked with contemporaries John Singer Sargent and Winslow Homer as one of the top American watercolorists at the turn of the twentieth century. Critically acclaimed for his vibrant Fauve-inspired color palette and lively brushwork. His work, most notably flag-bedecked city street scenes and landscapes derived from his travels, readily sold out during annual one-man exhibitions at Boston's Doll & Richards Gallery from 1888 to 1896. His popularity continued into the 1920s, only waning when he stopped painting altogether after the deaths of his wife and child in 1931. Boston art patrons of the era such as Isabella Stewart Gardner and Desmond Fitzgerald collected MacKnight's watercolors.

Canada flag Isabel McLaughlin

Born in 1903, she died in 2002 at the age of 99. She kept a studio and was very active in charitable works, too. Her father, Sam McLaughlin, was one of the founders of General Motors; his background was in Oshawa, Ontario and the start up business was McLaughlin-Buick. Before WW1 it was folded into General Motors (GM) of Canada. (Oshawa remains the major manufacturing center for GM in Canada). Isobel never married but holidayed at the family home in Bermuda with her four married sisters and brought many Canadian artists to the island to enjoy the visual panoply. Her 1960 painting ‘Sun Fish’ of brightly patterned sunfish floating across Hamilton Harbour is well-known in and owned by Masterworks, Bermuda. In the painting one can see colorful sails dotting Bermuda’s harbour. In those days, a sunfish regatta was a must for all sailors. Isobel donated C$4,000,000 plus to a well-known art gallery in Oshawa, Ontario, the McLaughlin Gallery. It was founded by a relative of Isabel's and was named after her grandfather, Robert McLaughlin. She was a friend of all the major Canadian painters of the 20th century. Her family mansion and estate there, "Parkwood," is a popular tourist site. The name Parkwood has often been used as a type of a GM luxury car.

Owen Heathcote Grierson Merton, RBA

1897-1931. New Zealand-born British painter, see www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen_Merton. Known primarily for his watercolours including a number painted in Bermuda. Also see http://www.thomasmertonsociety.org/omwcs.htm. Known from the several paintings shown therein to have painted in Bermuda in the 1920s, from 1922. (After the 1921 death of his wife, Merton lived in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, then in Bermuda, before returning to the UK and beyond).

UK flag Sam Morse-Brown

British, Bermuda resident from the 1970s to his death there. ARWA, PS. 1903-2001. Graduated from Slade School of Art. Arrived in Bermuda quite late in life from Gibraltar where he lived previously and was a resident of Bermuda's Hinson's Island. A prominent World War 2 artist when in his mid-40s (he wrote the book Artist in Battledress) he was then in the British 8th Army with the rank of major. His sitters, painted from life, then included  General Bernard Montgomery, King Umberto of Italy, the Italian commander who surrendered to Montgomery, Lord Mayor of London Sir John Laurie, Italian surrealist artist Georgio Chirico. He was also one of the first artists to paint Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth. The British Broadcasting Corporation ran a feature of his best-known UK-based paintings, see http://www.bbc.co.uk/arts/yourpaintings/paintings/search/painted_by/sam-morse-brown-15538. In Bermuda, as a well-known society artist he painted many notable local figures and/or their children in Bermuda. Also wrote several local books. A long-time member of the Bermuda Society of Arts and former president of that group.

Lucius Munson

1796-1823. American, from New Haven, Connecticut. Born on December 16, 1796, he studied in New York City in about 1818, returned to New Haven for about a year, then went to Bermuda for his health in 1822 and died in 1823 while on a visit from Bermuda to Turk's Island in the Caribbean. In Bermuda, he painted many persons of note, especially in St. George's. His works were shown in the 1935 Loan Exhibition of Portraits at the Bermuda Historical Society. Shown in the New York Historical Society: Dictionary of American Painters 1564-1860.

Georgia O'Keeffe

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_O%27Keeffe 

Not much is written in Wikipedia about her Bermuda life. She completed 12 known works in Bermuda in 1934, including the much cherished pencil and ink sketch which she titled "The Banyan Tree Trunk." This is now valued at more than $75,000. It is now back home in Bermuda where it belongs, as one of the masterworks paid for and owned by the Bermuda based Masterworks Foundation. Of the other eleven pieces she rendered in Bermuda, four became the properties of the O'Keeffe Foundation in New Mexico, one remains in New York's Museum of Modern Art, and the others are in private collections and various museums in the USA. However, all - except the one owned by the Museum of Modern Art - were exhibited in Bermuda together for the first time in 1994.

Georgia O'Keefe's 1934 Bermuda sojourn also inspired her to re-commit herself to the study of plants, the foundation upon which she had matured her style. For example, she sketched how a banana flower emerges to later form fruit. It is this 1934 Bermuda painting of hers that hangs so prominently today in New York's Museum of Modern Art. The curators there say it cannot be exported for Bermudians and visitors to see because such travel would expose to damage the thick charcoal and the pristine and smooth finish of the paper she used. She drew some of her inspiration from the other tenants of her The Parapet, Somerset, Sandys Parish, household, who had invited her to join them there, in her capacity as a fellow artist. They were three young American men, all very successful.

One was Noel Bush, then the editor of Life Magazine. The other two were George Bradshaw, a frequent contributor of short stories to the Saturday Evening Post and David Burnham, then completing a novel. To give her a measure of privacy, they graciously offered her the cottage at the back of The Parapet, which O'Keefe accepted eagerly. She rarely strayed far from that Somerset refuge, as she was so absorbed by the flowers and fruits that she found in the immediate vicinity. But she strayed into other peoples' properties, not deliberately, simply because she had no sense of boundaries. Whenever and wherever she trespassed, her fellow tenants promptly picked up the telephone and made polite apologies.

She was something of an eccentric in other ways. At her bidding, her friends - and their visitors - referred to her as Aunt Georgia. She did not wish to be called Miss O'Keeffe, or her married name, Mrs. Stieglitz, partly because she was conscious she was so much older than her friends. She wore very simple clothes, either black or white, loose fitting, not then in style. Her thick black hair with its signs of gray was drawn back and fastened in a big chignon behind her neck. It set off her strong profile, made all the more prominent as she refused to wear make-up.

But much of her time in Bermuda remains shrouded in mystery, with her other Bermuda inspired works poorly documented. When she left Bermuda in late 1934, she defied her husband and returned to New Mexico every summer. She bought a house there in 1945 and moved there permanently after his death in 1946. As an icon in the American Modernist Movement of art, she died in 1986 at the age of 99. Her art dealer in the USA for more than 30 years was Doris Bray.

Gabriel Humbert Parker

A noted German philosopher and writer, she was interned in Bermuda during World War 2. To relieve her boredom, she learnt to paint. An example of her work is in the Bermuda Masterworks collection. Her small framed "Cottage Scene" of the 1950s was on the market in Bermuda in 2003 for $450.

UK flag Princess Louise


Princess Louise Princess Louise 2Princess Louise 2

In 1998, Bermuda held the first ever exhibition of water colors by Her Royal Highness. It is not generally known that before she became a prolific and talented artist in paints, she was trained as a sculptor. She could also draw well. She was a beauty who abandoned life at court in favor of a Bohemian existence among artists and sculptors. She defied precedent by marrying, for the first time in many generations, outwith the cozy circles of European royalty. In 1871 she married the Marquis of Lorne from Scotland, heir to and who later became the 9th Duke of Argyle, the premier Highland noble. She was the Marchioness of Lorne, later the Duchess of Argyle. 

It was because of his Royal Appointment as Governor General of Canada that she was able to visit Bermuda, not just once in 1883 but several times later. She made no secret of the fact that she much preferred the much warmer winter climate of Bermuda to that of Canada. She was Bermuda's first official tourist in 1883. The two big local Princess Hotels are named after her. The first was the Hamilton (or Pembroke) Princess built originally in the late 1880's but modernized since. The real Princess consented to the name because it was built from the publicity she brought Bermuda. In fact, she was present for the grand opening and formally named the hotel. Bermuda also owed her a great debt because more than anyone else she put Bermuda on the map of tourism with her fame and stature. She referred to Bermuda as the "Shangri La" of holiday destinations. 

With her appreciation of the military, Guard of Honor it provided for her wedding and the artwork she did for it, one of Scotland's most famous British Army units, The Argyllshire Regiment, was renamed to honor her. It carried her insignia for many years in its own - and served in Bermuda for two years under the old name in the late 1920s before it became The Argyllshire Highlanders and later, the Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders. She designed all the badges for her regiment, incorporating the boar of her husband's Clan Campbell and the cat of Sutherland, both regarded in the Scottish Highlands as symbols of superhuman power since pagan times. She linked the two badges with a label of three points from her own armorial bearings, the mark of her cadency as a junior member of the royal family.

Sadly, the battalion that went to Bermuda was credited in the official regimental records in Stirling Castle as having served in Jamaica instead. (Despite our efforts since September 1998 and evidence from other resources as well that the unit was in Bermuda but never in Jamaica, we have not been successful in getting the unit to correct its records).

The leading Canadian organization which owns a number of the watercolors she painted while she was in Bermuda (and lent them to Bermuda for a recent  exhibition) is the National Gallery of Canada.

US flagHarold Pestana

Not an acknowledged artist himself, he is nevertheless important to the art world of Bermuda for the collection of Bermuda art he contributed to Bermuda as an American visitor. Emeritus Professor at Colby College, Waterville, Maine, he donated his entire Bermuda Art Collection to the Masterworks Foundation, some 31 pieces, plus archival photographs - and even paid the shipping. An art collector, teacher and researcher, he made about 30 visits to Bermuda to the Bermuda Biological Station for Research Inc. over the past 27 years. Among his gifts are paintings by Bermudians Alfred Birdsey, Mary Zuill, Ethel Tucker, early works by Otto Trott, Bruce Stewart and Lisa Quinn.

US flagOgden Minton Pleissner

Pleissner watercolor of St. George's1905-1983. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleissner

He made several visits to Bermuda in the early 1950's, not mentioned in the referred-to Wikipedia article. 

He painted many landscapes in water color. 

Influenced by Winslow Homer, Pleissner was able to make good use of the Bermuda light environment. 

He expressed his admiration of the architecture of Bermuda's original settlement, the Town of St. George

He stayed at "The Jungle" in Tucker's Town, St. George's Parish. 

He left at least 13 Bermuda images, most of them water colors of the town. See them at  Bermuda Masterworks. Today, his fame in the USA rates with those of Winslow Homer and John Singer Sargent.

Pleissner's Windsor Beach, Tuckers Town

He also painted in water color this lovely scene of Windsor Beach, Tucker's Town.

  US flagEdward Potthast

One of the Bermuda-visiting members of the American Water Color Society, formed in 1866.

US flag Frank Rehn

One of the Bermuda-visiting members of the American Water Color Society, formed in 1866.

US flag Richard Reminger

American, a frequent visitor to Bermuda. His local paintings included "View of St. George's."

UK flag Johnson Savage, MD

  In about 1835, when stationed in Bermuda as a young surgeon with the British Army's Royal Artillery, Savage painted a number scenes and buildings relating to his medical career in Bermuda, including the Royal Hospital at Ireland Island below and the Royal Artillery Officers’ Quarters at St. George’s. 

Painting by Johnson Savage, Bermuda, circa 1835

Royal Naval Hospital, Bermuda, Johnson Savage MD, about 1835

Johnson Savage’s grandson was also connected with Bermuda. He was Lieutenant Arthur Johnson Savage RE, a surveyor for the Royal Engineers who was stationed at Bermuda to carry out the first Ordnance Survey of the island in 1897, a task that was completed a few years later and published in 1901 in six sheets. The detailed large-scale survey is still in use and can be seen in the Bermuda’s Architectural Heritage series by the Bermuda National Trust.

Canada flag Roger Savage

Has painted many Bermuda scenes in watercolors. They include Jobson's Cove and Burchall's Cove.

US flag Prosper Louis Senat

American. Born March 13,1852 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 13, 1852. Died September 12, 1925. Studied in Philadelphia, New York, Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris and South Kensington School. Worked out of Germantown, PA. Also had a studio and house at Cape Arundel, Kennebunkport, Maine. Watercolor painter, also did etchings, specialized in landscapes and marine subjects. Painted in the USA,  Europe (Cornwall, Brittany, Italy), Egypt, Mexico, Jamaica and Bermuda. He exhibited nationally and internationally including at The Brussels Exposition of 1880, The Naples National Exposition of 1889, The Vienna National Exhibition of 1893, The Colombian Exhibition in Chicago 1893 and Atlanta in 1895. Senat and his wife were frequent visitors to Bermuda in the early 1900's. During their visits to the island they stayed at the Princess Hotel where Senat exhibited his work on numerous occasions including in 1908. One of his many local works was a watercolor simply called, "Bermuda" showing a Bermuda road, with mature cedar trees flanking and the road mottled from sunlight and shade. The location is not known for sure.  Another is the following:

Bermuda scene by Prosper Senat

UK flag Flag Captain (later Sir) Michael Seymour  

Of HMS Vindictive, whose distinctive watercolors included those done in Bermuda when his vessel toured ports of the North America and West Indies Station 1845-1848. They have been on display at the Bermuda Maritime Museum and its Commissioner's House.

RN Dockyard May 1847 by Captain Sir Michael Seymour

Royal Navy Dockyard, Bermuda, May 1847. Painting by Captain Sir Michael Seymour, RN. This one shows the Dockyard from Commissioner's House, including prison hulks on the left.

US flagGrant Simon

He painted in Bermuda during the latter 1930s. One of his paintings is "Gathering Seaweed, Shelly Bay." It depicts a wagon being loaded with seaweed.

Frank Small

In 1999, there was a lovely Bermuda National Trust Christmas card, "Welcoming Smile." by him.

US flag W. F. Snow

American, born November 4, 1869 in Brewster, Barnstable County,  MA. Died in about the 1950s. Sometimes known as W. Francis Snow. Believed to have been a son of Zoeth Snow and his wife Rebecca (nee Mayo). A well-respected artist and teacher in the late 1930s, 1940s (when he was able to travel to and from Bermuda in the difficult war years when travel was often difficult or restricted) and early 1950s. First arrived in Bermuda in 1937, not as a permanent resident but as a visitor whose visits became frequent and often for quite long spells. His favorite medium was oil on canvas. He operated a part-time studio at the base of Lighthouse Hill, Southampton, overlooking Waterlot Inn. He is believed to have also painted extensively on the US mainland and in US islands (for example, in St. Croix, USVI). One of his noted local works was an oil of Horseshoe Bay which was owned by a late Bermudian art collector until sold from his estate for $3,000 in April 2014.

US flag Niles Spencer

This artist was in Bermuda in the late 1920's. His "Bermuda 1929" painting was one of the works mentioned by the Philadelphia Enquirer in a review of art in Bermuda by overseas artists.

US flag Robert Steinmetz

A modern artist, he maintained a residence in Bermuda. He is the son-in-law of Taber Sears, a well-known New York artist. Recently, four of his works - including one of the Heydon Chapel painted in 1991 - were gifted to the Masterworks Foundation by William and Carol Bailey.

US flag Frank Stella

Modernist, he painted a number of nautical aspects of Bermuda including a hand-colored screen print entitled "Bermuda Petrel."

US flag James Toogood

Born in Philadelphia, PA, he first visited Bermuda in 1982 on honeymoon with his wife Eileen. He is a graduate of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Over the past 20 years, the couple have visited many times, as artist-in-residence at the Masterworks Foundation at Dockyard.

US flag Adolph Treidler

1886-1981. Most famous for his posters for both World Wars (about 20). He also did a famous long tenure painting for Pierce Arrow. He wrote in Automobile Quarterly, 1976, "My days with Pierce-Arrow spoiled me. Never once during my long association with the company did Pierce-Arrow return one of my paintings for changes or corrections. They were always pleased -- and I of course was delighted." A risky trip to Paris during the Depression led to the French Line account which, in turn, helped him get hired by the Bermuda Board of Trade in the 30s for campaigns and posters that put Bermuda on the tourist map (posters reprinted in the 1990s). He painted covers for most major magazines of the day (Collier's, Century, Scribner's, Woman's Home Companion, Saturday Evening Post, Harper's Weekly).

Treidler's Bermuda 1

Treidler's Bermuda 2

Treidler Bermuda 6


Treidler Bermuda 4

Treidler Bermuda 3 Treidler Bermuda 5

Some of Treidler's Bermuda works

US flag Don Trousdell

American, a long-time Bermuda resident, he is a nature-loving artist of the 20th and 21st centuries. His series of "Rock Boys" at City Hall on August 17, 2001 is a wonderful depiction of the lives of certain convicts sent to Bermuda from the 1830s to build the Dockyard. His other works include "Aviary." He has had several solo exhibitions in Bermuda.

UK flag Lieutenant General Gaspard Le Merchant Tupper

Born 1826 in Guernsey, Channel Islands, he was the son of Anna Maria, the daughter of Major General Sir Gaspard Le Merchant, see http://www.priaulxlibrary.co.uk/priaulx-library-new-details2.asp?ItemID=91. (His last name of Tupper was from his mother's married name). This particular grandson - see his own profile at http://www.hussards-photos.com/UK/UK_RHA_CDV8_Dublin.htm - of Gaspard Le Merchant became one of the most accomplished amateur artists of the 19th century. He enjoyed a long military career including serving heroically in the Crimean War between Britain and Russia. He was then posted to Bermuda as a battery commander with the Royal Horse Artillery in 1845 to April 1848.  It seems he also served again in Bermuda, from 1858. He arrived from England then on the convict-transporting ship (not a hulk) Norman Morrison and during his stay - initially as a Major - he was readily given permission as a field officer in Her Majesty's Armed Forces to paint a series of military or military-related scenes of Bermuda that are now famous. They are remarkable for their elegant detail, stunning color and excellent preservation. One includes a view from Mount Wyndham towards the town of St. George, from 1945. Others include landscapes and seascapes of Hamilton, St. George's and the Great Sound. One is called "My Daily Walk" and has a view of St. George's where he was stationed. Tupper later became a Lieutenant General in the British Army. His brother was Sir John Gaspard Le Marchant Tupper who became the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and then Nova Scotia.

RN Dockyard May 1947 a

Royal Navy Dockyard by Gaspard Le Merchant Tupper

Royal Naval Dockyard again by Gaspard Le Merchant Tupper

1858 by this artist

Royal Navy Dockyard, Bermuda, circa May 1847, bottom one 1858. Paintings by Gaspard Le Merchant Tupper

US flag Ross Sterling Turner

A repeat visitor who began his Bermuda visits in 1890, he was an impressionist who regarded Bermuda as a pastel paradise. One of his Bermuda works, dated 1908, is a view of Church Street, looking east with the cathedral dominating. Although it is a watercolour, the street appears to have been painted with white gouache. His painting reflects how the streets and roads of Bermuda where then made, with Bermuda limestone, giving them a white appearance.

UK flag  Emil Antoine Verpilleux

British, born London on March 3, 1888. His parents were Belgian, his artistic studies took place in France and at the Académie des Beaux Arts in Antwerp. From very early in his artistic career, Verpilleux made a name for himself as a printmaker, especially with coloured woodcuts. Indeed, he was the first artist to have a coloured woodcut hang in the Royal Academy. Verpilleux served in the First World War and until 1922 as an army officer, attaining the rank of captain. His military service lasted from 1914 to 1922, but during his war experience, he also managed to paint numerous war subjects, especially that of the Royal Flying Corps. Today, many of these paintings are in the collection of the Royal Air Force Museum. Verpilleux moved to Bermuda sometime, either in 1927 or early 1930s as an artist, portrait and landscape painter and woodcut printmaker. In 1949/50 he collaborated with ceramicist Andre Bohemelec to produce a series of dioramas, depicting scenes of early Bermuda history. These were, for many years, on exhibit in a special gallery in Fort St Catherine. During the early 1950s Verpilleux was active in establishing the Bermuda Society of Arts and served as president of the society from 1952 to 1956. He died in Bermuda in September 1964.

Bermuda work by Antoine Verpillux

US flag Clark Greenwood Voorhees

1871-1933. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clark_Greenwood_Voorhees. One of his many Bermuda artworks is the "Donkey and Cart", depicting both and, more prominently a Bermuda cottage. He was a prominent member of the Old Lyme school of Impressionism, but like Norman Black, by 1919, he was wintering in Bermuda. He liked the island so much he eventually bought the house "Tranquility" in Somerset, which then became his Bermuda home. In the 1950s, 60s and 70s his daughter, Florence Fish was a well known local artist and her daughter, Janet Fish, now a renowned New York painter, grew up in Bermuda and attended the Bermuda High School.

Frank Waller

1842 - 1923. Born in New York City, he was a painter and architect. He studied at the New York Free Academy and at the Art Students League with William Merritt Chase. He was a founder and president of the Art Students League and exhibited there from 1870 to 1887 as well as the Pennsylvania Academy and the Boston Art Club.  He traveled extensively including to Egypt where he made many studies for future work. He also painted in Venice, other parts of Italy, upper New York state, New Hampshire, and Bermuda, where he painted this picture of the Natural Aches feature on a Tucker's Town beach. 

Natural Arches by Frank Waller

Margaret Wilson Walker

British, known to have visited Bermuda in 1887 and painted the watercolor below. 

Art of Margaret Wilson Walker

US flagE. Ambrose Webster

See http://www.provincetownartistregistry.com/W/webster_e_ambrose.html. A pioneer in the American Modernist movement, he first came to Bermuda in 1913. What induced him to paint here were the tropical colors. He was intrigued by Bermuda's landscapes and quiet dignity of the local black people. Three of his portrait paintings of these, completed in the early 1920's, are now part of the Masterworks Foundation of Bermuda collection. One is his "Two Sisters" which was exhibited in New York recently. He studied under Gleizes (see above) from 1918 to 1919.

Webster painting of BermudaWebster's Bermuda Garden

  UK flag M. P. West

 As an exhibitor at London's Royal Academy of Arts, she painted two rare portraits of a boy and girl in Bermuda in the 1870's, a period when only relatively few works relating to Bermuda remain in existence. 

She also painted landscapes of Bermuda. Her work has been collected by London's Victoria and Albert Museum.

  Frank W. Wood

UK flag1860-1954. English, a Royal Navy officer earlier and internationally regarded watercolorist. He was in Bermuda in 1929 and 1931 and painted scenes of Admiralty House (since demolished) and Admiralty Cove, in those days the Headquarters of the America & West Indies Squadron.

 He painted from Royal Navy warships based in Bermuda with permission from Vice Admiral Sir Cyril T. M. Fuller, KCB, CMG, DSO. 

US flagAndrew Wyeth

American, born July 12, 1917 in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. His Wikipedia entry at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Wyeth does not mention Bermuda. His father was Newell Convers Wyeth, a well known illustrator whose art was featured in many magazines, calendars, posters, murals and maps for the National Geographic Society. Later, his son lived in Maine. Known to have painted one work in Bermuda as shown below in about 1938, possibly after graduating from Bowdoin College in Maine. There may be more from Bermuda but not yet proven. Some prints were made of this work.  

Andrew Wyeth Bermuda painting


We cordially invite all in Bermuda with any artistic appraisal or collection or gallery or historic interest in the above web file to exchange free courtesy hyperlinks with us, so we can refer to and show them as additional and relevant Bermuda artistic resources when requested by readers. 

line drawing

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Last Updated: March 29, 2015.
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